地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (8): 949-960.doi: 10.11821/xb201008006

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

转型期中国城镇居民住房类型分化及其影响因素——基于CGSS (2005) 的分析

刘望保1, 闫小培2, 曹小曙2   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州510631;
    2. 中山大学城市与区域研究中心,广州510275
  • 收稿日期:2009-07-13 修回日期:2010-05-30 出版日期:2010-08-20 发布日期:2010-08-31
  • 作者简介:刘望保(1975-), 男, 博士, 副研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110007720M), 主要研究方向为城市社会地理。 E-mail: wbliu@scnu.edu.cn; liufeng09023@126.com.
  • 基金资助:

    香港浸会大学基金项目(HKBU2080/99H); 教育部人文社科青年项目(09YJC840016)

Housing Type Variation and Its Influencing Factors in Transitional Urban China:Based on Analysis of CGSS 2005

LIU Wangbao1, YAN Xiaopei2, CAO Xiaoshu2   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China;
    2. Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2009-07-13 Revised:2010-05-30 Online:2010-08-20 Published:2010-08-31
  • Supported by:

    Fund of Hong Kong Baptist University, No.HKBU2080/99H; Fund of Social Sciences Research, Ministry of Education,No.09YJC840016

摘要:

转型时期我国城镇居民主要通过市场竞争机制和科层分配体制来获取个人住房,获取稀缺的住房资源的途径和机会的差异在一定程度上反映了住房不平等和社会分化。处于体制转型时期的中国城镇,制度、市场和家庭因素等多重因素相互交织,共同影响中国城镇居民住房选择。以覆盖全国88 个城镇的《中国综合社会调查(CGSS)》(2005 年城镇部分) 调查资料为基础,本文分析了转型背景下中国城镇居民住房类型分化及其影响因素,研究发现:改革 开放30 多年以来,中国城镇的住房自有率大幅度提高,其主要原因从1998 年前的公房房改政策向1998 年后住房市场化政策转变。家庭生命周期、家庭收入、户籍、单位性质、职业等变 量显著影响住房选择,体现市场与制度对住房资源分配的双重影响。经济发达地区由于住房资源紧缺、住房价格高,居民住房承受能力差异较大,工作单位性质、户籍和家庭生命周期变量对住房选择的影响更显著。随着住房市场化进一步发展和住房制度改革的逐步深入,地方政府应逐步放宽社会住房的享受标准,尤其是户籍限制条件;开发商应更关注社会经济快 速转型背景下的家庭结构变化及其对居住偏好的影响。

关键词: 住房类型选择, 社会分化, 住房产权分化, logistic回归模型, 中国

Abstract:

Market competition mechanism and bureaucracy distribution system are the two main channels for China's urban residents to obtain individual housing. To some extent, the differences of channels and opportunities for different types of households to obtain rare housing resources reflect housing inequality and social division in urban China. Institutional factors, market factors and household factors have interacted to shape individual's housing choice in transitional urban China. Using China's General Social Survey (CGSS 2005) (urban part) which covers 88 cities across the country, this paper analyzes housing type variation and its influencing factors in transitional urban China. It is found that house-ownership rate increases more quickly since the reform in 1978 and its main causes have transformed from public housing reform policy to housing commercialisation policy prior to and after 1998. Housing commercialisation has been enhanced gradually, and diversity characterizes housing tenure structure in transitional urban China. The findings demonstrate that household life cycle change, income, hukou, types of work units and occupation have significant impacts on housing choice which manifests the dual significant effect on housing distribution system from institutional and market force. The findings also reveal that types of work units, hukou and life cycle variables have more significant effects on housing choice in more developed areas when housing sources tend to be rare resources and house prices go high and there exists a great gap of housing affordability among residents. With future development of housing commercialisation and housing system reform, local government should gradually relax the constraints for social housing, especially the hukou constraints. Real estate developers should concern more about household structure change and its impacts on the residential preferences in the context of rapid socio-economic transformation.

Key words: housing types choice, social division, housing tenure variation, logistic regression model, China