地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (7): 853-862.doi: 10.11821/xb201007009

• 水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔里木盆地水汽含量的计算与特征分析

杨青1, 刘晓阳2, 崔彩霞3, 李军1, 刘蕊1   

  1. 1. 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所,乌鲁木齐830002;
    2. 北京大学物理学院大气科学系,北京100871;
    3. 新疆气象台,乌鲁木齐830002
  • 收稿日期:2010-03-06 修回日期:2010-04-20 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-20
  • 作者简介:杨青(1956-), 男, 研究员, 主要从事气候变化与环境研究。E-mail: yangq@idm.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国气象科研院所科研业务费项目(IBM200701); 中国气象局气候变化专项(CCSF-09-20); 国家自然科学重点基金(40830956); 科技部公益性行业(气象) 专项(GYHY200706008); 中国沙漠气象科学研究基金 (SQJ2007001)

The Computation and Characteristics Analysis of Water Vapor Contents in the Tarim Basin, China

YANG Qing1, LIU Xiaoyang2, CUI Caixia3, LI Jun1, LIU Rui1   

  1. 1. Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Urumqi 830002, China;
    2. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    3. Xinjiang Weather Observatory, Urumqi 830002, China
  • Received:2010-03-06 Revised:2010-04-20 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-20
  • Supported by:

    The Science and Research Funds for the National Institutes, No.IBM200701; The Special Fund for Climate Change, No.CCSF-09-20; Natural Science Research Emphases Fund, No.40830956; The Special Fund for Commonweal Project, No.GYHY200706008; Desert Meteorological Science Research Fund, No.SQJ2007001

摘要:

利用1976-2009 年塔里木盆地的和田、库车、若羌、喀什和民丰5 个探空站的实测资料计算了逐月平均水汽含量,并建立了与地面水汽压的关系式;利用这种关系式计算了盆地及周边地区28 个站水汽含量,进行了EOF分解,得出了水汽分布形式;分析了地表水汽压随高度的变化;对在盆地腹地及周边地区进行的GPS观测资料进行了水汽含量的反演,并与探空计算值进行了对比。结果表明:盆地内水汽含量有两个高值区,主要分布在盆地西部和北部的边缘地带,中心水汽含量在13~14 mm,均位于塔里木河干流、叶尔羌河流域、阿克苏河支流周围的绿洲地区。塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地是水汽的低值区中心,水汽含量仅为7~8 mm,塔中是所有站中水汽量最少的,由中心向外逐渐增加,在环塔里木盆地的西部、北部绿洲区达到最高,然后由于海拔高度的影响又逐渐减小。塔里木盆地地基GPS反演水汽数据与探空计算值存在良好的线性关系。

关键词: 水汽, 可降水量, 塔里木盆地

Abstract:

Monthly mean water vapor contents were computed using meteorological data from 5 radiosonde stations including Hotan, Kuqa, Ruoqiang, Kashi and Minfeng around the Tarim Basin China during 1976-2006, and a formula was established involving monthly mean water vapor content and surface vapor pressure. By this formula, we obtained water vapor contents of all the 28 weather stations around the Tarim Basin and also performed EOF of water vapor contents to study its spatial pattern. Changes of vapor pressure with the height were also analysed. The water vapor contents obtained by GPS in the center and surroundings of the Tarim Basin were compared with radiosonde reports. Results show that: there are two higher water vapor areas in the Tarim Basin, one is on the west edge and the other is on the north edge, and the contents are both between 13-14 mm. These two higher centers are both in the oases near the Tarim River, Yarkant River and Aksu River. The center of the Tarim River has the lower water vapor, with the content being only between 7-8 mm, and the lowest spot is in Tazhong station. The water vapor content presents an increasing trend from the basin center to the edges, then presents a decreasing trend due to higher altitudes outside the Basin. There is good linear relationship between water vapor contents obtained from GPS and radiosonde.

Key words: water vapor, precipitable water vapor, the Tarim Basin