地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (7): 828-840.doi: 10.11821/xb201007007

• 水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

鄱阳湖流域水沙时空演变特征及其机理

孙鹏1, 张强1,2, 陈晓宏1, 陈永勤3,4   

  1. 1. 中山大学水资源与环境系,广州510275;
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,湖泊与环境国家重点实验室,南京210008;
    3. 香港中文大学地理与资源管理系,香港;
    4. 香港中文大学中国战略环境评价研究中心,香港
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-11 修回日期:2010-04-09 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-30
  • 作者简介:孙鹏,E-mail: sun68peng@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40701015); 南京地理与湖泊研究所前沿领域创新研究项目(CXNIGLAS200814;08SL141001-28005); 中山大学理工科青年教师重点培育项目(2009-37000-1132381); 中山大学“百人计划”人才引进项目(37000-3171315); 国家自然科学基金重点项目(50839005) 共同资助

Spatio-temporal Patterns of Sediment and Runoff Changes in the Poyang Lake Basin and Underlying Causes

SUN Peng1, ZHANG Qiang1,2, CHEN Xiaohong1, CHEN Yongqin David3,4   

  1. 1. Department of Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Nanjing 210008, China;
    3. Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, hina;
    4. Centre of Strategic Environmental Assessment for China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • Received:2010-01-11 Revised:2010-04-09 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-30
  • Supported by:

    National Science Foundation of China, No.40701015; Frontier Program of the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, No.CXNIGLAS200814; No.08SL141001-28005; The Program for Outstanding Young Teachers of the Sun Yat-sen University, No.2009-37000-1132381; The '985 Project', No.37000-3171315; The Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.50839005]

摘要:

运用改进的Mann-Kendall (M-K) 趋势与突变检验以及线性回归分析等方法,系统分析了鄱阳湖流域的赣江、抚河、信江、饶河和修河等五大支流的5 个主要水文控制站(外洲、李家渡、梅港、虎山、万家埠) 1956-2005 年的水沙序列,在系统搜集流域内水库信息的基础上,深入探讨了流域内水沙变化的原因。研究结果表明:(1) 鄱阳湖流域各支流的水沙变化特征相异;除李家渡站径流无明显变化外,其余4 站都有增加趋势(但未达到95%的置信度水平)。五大支流的输沙量变化比较复杂,外洲站、李家渡、梅港站和虎山站的输沙量在1985 年以后减少的趋势显著,而万家埠站的输沙量直到1999 年才开始减少;(2) 森林覆盖率对输沙量变化的影响远远大于其对径流变化的影响,森林对减少湿季径流量的作用不明显,但对枯季径流量增加的影响显著。(3) 水利设施(尤其是水库) 对五大支流的水沙变化影响很大,尤其对输沙量的影响最为明显,这也是鄱阳湖流域大部分水文观测站输沙量减少的主要原因。

关键词: 鄱阳湖流域, 水沙趋势分析, 突变分析

Abstract:

Annual runoff and annual suspended sediment loads at five hydrological gauging stations (Waizhou, Meigang, Lijiadu, Hushan and Datong) in the five tributaries of the Poyang Lake Basin (Ganjiang River, Fuhe River, Xinjiang River, Raohe River and Xiushui River) were analyzed using Mann-Kendall trend test and linear regression method. The results indicate that (1) the changing patterns of runoff and sediment loads are different over the Poyang Lake Basin. No significant trend is found for annual runoff at all the stations at >95% confidence level. However, the changes of sediment loads demonstrate different pictures in the Poyang Lake Basin. The sediment loads show a decreasing trend at Waizhou, Meigang and Hushan stations (the increasing trend of Waizhou station is significant at > 95% confidence level after around the year 1998), but an increasing trend at Ljiadu and Xiushui stations; (2) the forest coverage changes have greater impacts on sediment load than on the runoff; extensive deforestation contributed less to the increase of sediment loads in 1958. Large-scale deforestation caused significant increase of sediment loads during 1971-1985; (3) Hydraulic facilities, especially water reservoirs, exerted more influences on sediment load changes than on runoff, being the major cause next to the decreasing trend of sediment loads. The results of this study are of great practical significance to a better understanding of the hydrological responses to climate changes and human activities across the Poyang Lake Basin, as a freshwater wetland in China.

Key words: Poyang Lake Basin, runoff and sediment changes, water reservoir, Mann-Kendall trend