地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (7): 809-818.doi: 10.11821/xb201007005

• 水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

天津城市沿革中的供水格局演变分析

冯跃1,2, 鲁春霞1, 唐笑飞1,2, 谢高地1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2010-04-02 修回日期:2010-05-20 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 鲁春霞(1965-), 女, 副研究员, E-mail: lucx@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:冯跃(1984-), 女, 天津人, 硕士, 主要从事自然资源利用及其环境效应领域的研究。E-mail: fengy.07s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划重点项目(2006BAC18B01)

Water Supply Pattern Evolution of Tianjin in the Process of Urban Development

FENG Yue1,2, LU Chunxia1, TANG Xiaofei1,2, XIE Gaodi1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-04-02 Revised:2010-05-20 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-20
  • Supported by:

    National Key Technology R&D Program,No.2006BAC18B01

摘要:

分析天津地区城市发展过程中的供水格局演变表明: 由于地下水盐碱度较高,在古代和近代,海河流域的地表水是城市的主要供水来源,供水保障区域即为城市附近的海河上游地区。1949 年以来,经过不同阶段的水利工程建设,天津已经形成了与城市空间布局相适应的供水系统。供水结构特征表现为以地表水为主,地下水为辅,对新型水源利用较少,高度依赖外来水源,如“引滦入津”等。过去60 年来,天津城市供水水源和供水保障区域的演变大致经历了三个阶段:(1) 20 世纪50 年代至60 年代中期的基本自给期,供水保障区域基本控制在天津市域范围内;(2) 60 年代中期至80 年代初期,将海河流域上游作为主要的供水保障区域、黄河水为应急水源的供水格局不稳定期。(3) 80 年代初期至今,以滦河流域为主要供水保障区域、黄河水为应急水源的供水格局基本稳定期。预计未来天津对外来水源的利用量将进一步增加,地表水所占比重将继续上升,地下水的利用量将减少。地表水的供水保障区域将在现有以滦河流域为主的基础上,进一步扩展至长江流域,地下水的供水保障区域将进一步缩小。

关键词: 供水格局, 供水保障区域, 天津市, 海河

Abstract:

From the perspective of geography, this paper studies the evolution of Tianjin water supply pattern by taking advantage of GIS technology. The results showed that because of high salinity of groundwater, surface water from the Haihe River basin was utilized as the main water source of Tianjin in ancient and modern times. The region for water security in these two periods was the upper Haihe River close to the city. Since 1949, water conservancy facilities and water source development have been constructed step by step, and the water supply system in correspondence with the city layout has been established. Water supply structure of Tianjin was characterized by higher proportion of surface water, utilization of new types of water in small quantity and high dependence on external water. The evolution of water source and region for water security has experienced 3 stages in the last 60 years. The first stage is basically the self-supporting period from the 1950s to mid-1960s. The region for water security was confined in administrative area. The second stage lasted from the mid-1960s to early 1980s. It was an unstable period when the upper Haihe River was taken as the main region for water security and water from the Yellow River basin for emergence use. From the early 1980s to the present, the Luanhe River basin was taken as the main region for water security and water from the Yellow River basin was taken as water source for emergency, and the supply water pattern was stable by and large. In the future, utilization of external water would be larger and the proportion of surface water would be higher. Utilization amount of ground water would decrease continuously. The region for surface water security would extend to the Yangtze River Basin on the basis of the current pattern. Region for ground water security would experience further reduction.

Key words: water supply pattern, region for water security, Tianjin, Haihe River