地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (7): 789-800.doi: 10.11821/xb201007003

• 自然地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

渭北高原土地利用变化对土壤剖面发育的影响——以洛川—长武塬区耕地转为苹果园为例

庞奖励, 张卫青, 黄春长, 查小春, 张彩云, 常美蓉, 朱美玲, 丁敏   

  1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院,西安710062
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-27 修回日期:2010-05-12 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-20
  • 作者简介:庞奖励(1963-), 男, 西安市人, 博士, 教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110005769M), 主要从事土地利用与土壤演变的研究。E-mail: jlpang@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(40471119; 40771018); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金资助(KG200901007)

The Influence of Land Use Change on Soil Development and over the Loess Tablelands in the Northern Weihe River Basin, China

PANG Jiangli, ZHANG Weiqing, HUANG Chunchang, ZHA Xiaochun, ZHANG Caiyun, CHANG Meirong, ZHU Meiling, DING Min   

  1. College of Tourism and Environment Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China
  • Received:2010-01-27 Revised:2010-05-12 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-20
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40471119; No.40771018; Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, No.KG200901007

摘要:

在对渭北高原地区土地利用调研的基础上,选择6 个耕作土壤剖面和8 个苹果园土壤剖面为研究对象,通过对这些剖面的构型、质地、元素组成、理化性质和微形态的研究,分析了土地利用变化对土壤演化的影响和机理。结果表明,耕地转为苹果园后,土壤构型从Ap-Bc-A-Ck-C 逐渐变为AB-(Bc)-A-Ck-C;土壤表层(0~35 cm) 的磁化率、有机质、常量元素(Si、Al、Fe、K、Mg、Ca、Na) 和微量元素(Cu、Co、Ni、Zn、V、Cr、Pb、As) 含量趋于增加,CaCO3含量和pH趋于降低;35~90 cm,CaCO3含量趋于增加,而磁化率、有机质、常量元素和微量元素含量趋于降低;90 cm深度以下土壤性质变化不大;土壤孔隙的数量减少而平均孔径和孔隙率增加,粘土矿物总含量增加,而残积粘土/淀积粘土比值降低,次生碳酸盐的空间位置从主要出现在0~35 cm深度变为在0~90 cm范围内普遍出现。这些表明土地利用方式从耕地改为苹果园,土壤剖面构型发生了明显分异,土壤性质的变化主要发生在90 cm以上,土壤表层(0~35 cm) 的变化大于土壤下层(35~90 cm)。

关键词: 土地利用, 耕作土壤, 苹果园土壤, 土壤剖面构型, 渭北高原

Abstract:

Investigations of land use change and its impact on soil development were carried out over the loess tablelands in the northern Weihe River basin. Typical soil profiles, including 6 cultivated soil and 8 apple orchard soil were surveyed in detail, and then sampled systematically. Pedological characteristics and the structure of soil profiles were observed in the field. Particle-size distribution, magnetic susceptibility, contents of organic matter, CaCO3, trace elements, pH value and micromorphology was analyzed in laboratory. An integration of the results shows that: (1) When cultivated land was converted to apple orchard, the structure of the soil profile changed from Ap-Bc-A-Ck-C to AB-(Bc)-A-Ck-C gradually. (2) Element change occurred in the topsoil between 0 and 35 cm in depth. Magnetic susceptibility, contents of organic matter, major elements (Si, Al, Fe, K, Mg, Ca, Na) and trace elements (Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Vi, Cr, Pb, Cs) tend to increase, and CaCO3 content and pH value tend to decrease. (3) Between 35 and 90 cm in depth, magnetic susceptibility, contents of organic matter, major and trace elements tend to decrease, and CaCO3 content tends to increase. (4) Soil properties remain unchanged below 90 cm in depth. (5) Soil porosity change is obvious. The number of the soil pores is reduced, and the average area of pores is increased. The total content of clay mineral is increased, the ratio of the residual clay to alluvial clay is reduced. The illuviation depth of secondary calcite in the cultivated soil profile occurred between 0 and 35 cm in depth. However, in apple orchard soil profile, carbonate illuviation extended to the depth of 90 cm in general. All of these evidences show that human land use change has affected soil properties and soil development in a relatively short period of time. After cultivated land was changed into apple orchard, soil properties changed mainly between 0 and 35 cm in depth, and the deeper part between 35 and 90 cm was also affected.

Key words: land use change, cultivated land, apple orchard land, soil profile, loess tablelands, northern Weihe River basin