地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (6): 745-754.doi: 10.11821/xb201006012

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市郊区游憩空间分布规律

王润1, 2, 刘家明1, 陈田1, 田大江1, 2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101; 
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-07-20 修回日期:2010-01-19 出版日期:2010-06-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 刘家明(1966-), 副研究员, 硕士生导师, 主要研究方向: 旅游地理、旅游度假区。E-mail: liujm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王润(1984-), 女,衡水人,博士研究生, 主要研究方向为旅游地理、城市游憩。E-mail: sleaky@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571059)

Distribution of Recreational Area in Suburban Metropolis: A Case Study of Beijing

WANG Run1, 2, LIU Jia-ming1, CHEN Tian1, TIAN Da-jiang1, 2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2009-07-20 Revised:2010-01-19 Online:2010-06-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571059

摘要:

郊区是城市发展的腹地,郊区游憩空间不仅能够满足都市居民出游的需求,而且对维护城市生态安全具有重要意义。本文选取北京作为案例地,对郊区的游憩空间布局规律进行研究。在前期研究的基础上,结合网络、文献、调研收集数据,将游憩空间按照功能划分为3类:公共游憩空间、商业游憩空间与附属游憩空间;将不同功能、不同经营主体与不同土地利用的游憩空间组织起来,从而建立北京郊区游憩空间采样数据库,采用GIS空间分析的技术手段得出结论。研究发现,北京郊区各类游憩空间布局具有空间分异规律。公共游憩空间中风景名胜区分布在远郊的山区;城市公园与城市形态相关;郊野公园属于政策导向型的游憩空间,在一定程度上缓解了资源本底条件造成的游憩空间不均匀分布。商业游憩空间呈现产品的空间分异,并与交通、水系条件密切相关;乡村游憩设施依托于大型景区,并与农业传统相关。北京郊区的游憩空间已经初步具备网络结构并向纵深发展,出现了产业集中区。最后指出北京游憩空间布局中存在的不合理现象和改进的方向。该研究旨在构建都市游憩空间的有机结构,为城市规划与游憩管理提供科学依据。

关键词: 游憩空间, 北京郊区, 用地分类, 旅游用地, 空间分布规律

Abstract:

Suburban districts are imperial for urban development because of its vital roles in catering recreational needs of urban residents and in reshaping urban ecological structure. Beijing, one of the biggest cities in China, has nearly all the recreational land types and also has a long history of recreation development. Thus, the authors, taking Beijing as a study case, conduct research on distribution rules of recreational lands in suburban metropolises. Recreational land types are divided into three groups: public recreational land, commercial recreational land and farm (subsidiary) recreational land. Recreational land database is built up according to this classification. With the aid of GIS, the distribution rules are analyzed in this study. First, there are 161 public recreational land samples, including urban parks, country and forest parks, scenic spots and historic sites. Scenic spots and historic sites are located in outer suburbs, while parks are located along the main roads. Public recreational land has a trend to network structure from line structure. Second, 114 commercial recreational land samples are considered. Transport and water are the main factors in their distribution. Additionally, golf courses, hippodromes and recreational villas are near the center of Beijing, while theme parks, summer resorts and skiing courses are much farther. Third, the data of 222 farm recreational land samples are collected, including farm resorts, traditional country hotels and farm parks. Most of farm recreational lands are near famous scenic spots. In traditional agricultural districts, there would be some farm parks, such as apple parks, cherry parks and watermelon parks. This research aims to find these distribution rules of recreational land in rural districts, which could be applied in urban planning and recreation management. However, the authors point out that there are some issues existing in recreational land distribution of suburban Beijing. Although recreational land follows distance differentiation rules, some commercial recreational sites, such as golf courses and recreational villas are too close to built-up districts and occupy too much space. Most residents can not afford the cost. Furthermore, though there is much land for recreation in suburban Beijing, transport infrastructure and recreational facilities are underdeveloped. Most area of scenic spots and historic sites could not be used for recreation for the above two reasons. Finally, built-up lands have not been restricted in suburbs. Some recreational area is used for apartment building in the name of golf course, skiing parks and farm resorts.

Key words: recreational area, rural districts in metropolis, classification of recreational land, tourism land, space distribution rules