地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (5): 623-631.doi: 10.11821/xb201005011

• 自然地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

三峡水库一、二期蓄水对下游悬沙通量影响的计算

张珍1, 杨世伦1, 李鹏1, 2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室,上海200062;
    2. 国家海洋局东海标准计量中心,上海200080
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-08 修回日期:2010-03-19 出版日期:2010-05-25 发布日期:2010-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨世伦, 教授, E-mail: slyang@sklec.ecnu.cn
  • 作者简介:张珍(1987-), 女, 硕士生, 主要从事流域变化与河口响应方面的研究。E-mail: zhangzhen20060306@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金创新群体项目(40721004); 国家科技部河口海岸学国家重点实验室专项课题(2008KYYW01); 国家科技部中— 荷合作项目(2008DFB90240)

Quantifying the Influence of Water Impoundment Phases I and II of the Three Gorges Reservoir on Downstream Suspended Sediment Flux

ZHANG Zhen1; YANG Shi-lun1; LI Peng1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Lab of Estuarine and Coastal Research; East China Normal University; Shanghai 200062; China; 
    2. East Center of Ocean Standard and Metrology; SOA; Shanghai 200080; China
  • Received:2010-01-08 Revised:2010-03-19 Online:2010-05-25 Published:2010-05-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China for Innovation Research Group, No.40721004; Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China for the State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, No.2008KYYW01; Ministry of Science and Technology of China for Cooperation Program of China and Netherlands, No.2008DFB90240

摘要:

水库对坝下游泥沙通量影响的定量估算是一个国际前沿的科学问题。本文利用长江干流上寸滩、宜昌、汉口、大通四站及其间的支流控制站的水沙监测数据,结合对干流两侧不在支流控制站监测范围的"未测区"水沙贡献的估算,建立了悬沙收支平衡和悬沙输运经验关系,从而定量分析了三峡水库一、二期蓄水对大坝下游(至河口)悬沙通量的影响。结果表明:(1)三峡水库一期(2003-2005年)和二期(2006-2007年)蓄水期间水库的悬沙淤积比分别为64%和83%。(2)受坝下游河床冲刷和支流来沙补给的影响,三峡水库一、二期蓄水分别导致宜昌站悬沙通量下降62%和82%,汉口站悬沙通量下降37%和54%,大通站悬沙通量下降28%和40%。(3)与蓄水前的5年(1998-2002年)相比,蓄水后的2003-2007年上述三站悬沙通量分别下降354×109、172×109和163×109kg/a,其中三峡水库蓄水的贡献分别占41%、55%和45%。以上认识对科学和客观的评价河流建坝的环境效应提供了启示。

关键词: 河流, 水库, 输沙率, 三峡工程, 长江

Abstract:

To estimate the alteration of downstream sediment flux affected by dam construction is an international scientific problem. In this paper, we estimate the water and sediment supplies from "ungauged area" next to the main river that the gauging stations of tributaries failed to cover. In combination of the estimated data with the geodesic datum collected at Cuntan, Yichang, Hankou and Datong stations and the tributaries gauge stations between Cuntan and Datong, we build a suspended sediment budget to quantify the influence of water impoundment phases I and II of the Three Gorges Reservoir on downstream (to estuary) suspended sediment flux. The results indicated: (1) During the Three Gorges Reservoir phases I (2003-2005) and II (2006-2007) impoundment period, the settlement rates of SSC in the Three Gorges Reservoir was 64% and 83% respectively. (2) Due to the dam downstream river bed erosion and sediments from tributaries, water impoundment phases I and II of Three Gorges Reach induces the suspend sediment of Yichang station decreased by 62% and 82%, Hankou station decreased by 37% and 54%, Datong station decreased by 28% and 40%. (3) Compared with the former five years (1998-2002), the five years (2003-2007) after The Three Gorges Dam put into operation, the suspended sediment load of three stations mentioned above was decreased by 354, 172 and 163×109 kg/a respectively. The decrease rates attributed to water impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir were 41%, 55% and 45%, respectively.

Key words: river, reservoir, sediment load, Three Gorges Project, Yangtze River

中图分类号: 

  • TV145