地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (4): 416-426.doi: 10.11821/xb201004004

• 人口与城市 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国县域可达性区域划分及其与人口分布的关系

王振波1, 徐建刚1, 朱传耿2, 祁毅1, 徐璐1   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京210093; 
    2. 徐州师范大学城市与环境学院,徐州221116
  • 收稿日期:2009-03-11 修回日期:2009-12-11 出版日期:2010-04-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 徐建刚, 男, 博士生导师, 主要从事城市与区域规划信息技术研究。E-mail: xjg129@sina.com
  • 作者简介:王振波(1980-), 男, 山东人, 博士生, 中国地理学会会员(S110007159A), 主要从事经济地理及生态经济学研究。E-mail: zhenbowang@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40871261; 40671053); 国家社会科学基金项目(06BJL058); 江苏省研究生培养创新工程项目(CX08B_013Z)

The County Accessibility Divisions in China and Its Correlation with Population Distribution

WANG Zhenbo1; XU Jiangang1; ZHU Chuangeng2; QI Yi1; XU Lu1   

  1. 1.School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences; Nanjing University; Nanjing 210093; China;
    2.College of Urban and Environmental Science; Xuzhou Normal University; Xuzhou 221116; Jiangsu; China
  • Received:2009-03-11 Revised:2009-12-11 Online:2010-04-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 40871261; No.40671053; National Social Science Foundation of China, No.06BJL058; Jiangsu Province Postgraduate Cultivation Innovation Project Fund, No.CX08B_013Z

摘要:

可达性空间划分是交通地理学研究的重要领域。分析其与人口布局的关系,对当下中国的发展具有重要的理论与实践意义。借助GIS 软件平台,运用栅格成本加权距离算法,计算全国县 (市、区) 域单元的空间可达性并进行区域划分,进而探讨中国大区域交通可达性与人口分布的关系,揭示不同交通条件和不同区域类型中人口迁移与人口流动内在机制,为区域规划、交通规划和中国人口配置提供科学依据。研究表明,①栅格成本加权距离算法可以实现空间可达性概念从定性描述转向定量计算的精确转换;②中国县域可达性以低值为主,具有圈层状和"反自然梯度"空间结构,"黑河—腾冲"线为明显分界线;③中国大陆分为3大区:可达性高值区、可达性中值区、可达性低值区。可达性中值区又可分为东南诸省亚区、陕甘宁晋亚区、吉林亚区;可达性低值区分为云川渝亚区、蒙黑亚区、新疆亚区、青藏亚区;④国家区域范围内县域可达性与人口密度具有明显的相关性,2.5小时圈是目前中国可达性与人口集聚产生作用的最远距离;中国县域可达性越高的区域,可达性对人口集聚产生作用圈就越大,而可达性值与人口数量的相关性越小,说明交通条件对落后地区人口集聚所起到的作用远远大于发达地区。

关键词: 县域, 空间可达性, 人口集聚, 栅格成本加权距离, 中国

Abstract:

Based on matrix raster data covering the whole space,this paper calculates spatial accessibility of all counties (city,urban district) in China using cost weighted distance method and ArcGIS 9.2 as platforms.Then we discuss the relation of traffic accessibility and population aggregation under the background of China\'s rapid urbanization.This is not only a practical test of the western population theory in China,but also a discovery of the phenomenon of transportation guiding population aggregation in China.The result shows that:(1) The cost weighted distance method can realize accurate conversion of spatial accessibility from qualitative description to quantitative calculation.(2) County accessibility in China has mainly low values and a distribution structure of circle layer and reverse-to-natural gradient,where "Heihe-Tengchong" line is the demarcation line.(3) According to accessibility,Chinese mainland can be divided into 3 parts:High Value Region (HVR),Intermediate Value Region (IVR) and Low Value Region (LVR).The HVR is in eastern coastal area of China;IVR is situated on the periphery of HVR,which can be further divided into Southeast Provinces Subregion (SEPSR),Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia-Shanxi Subregion (SGNSSR) and Jilin Subregion (JLSR);LVR can be divided into Yunnan-Sichuan-Chongqing Subregion (YSCSR),Inner Mongolia-Heilongjiang Subregion (IMHSR),Xinjiang Subregion (XJSR) and Qinghai-Tibet Subregion (QTSR).(4) County accessibility is closely related with population density in China.The 2.5-hour circle is the limited distance for the effects of Chinese accessibility on population aggregation.As the accessibility of a region goes higher,the circle of population aggregation affected by accessibility becomes bigger.As the accessibility of a region goes higher,the circle of population aggregation affected by accessibility becomes bigger.Meanwhile,the correlation between accessibility and population becomes smaller.The result shows that the effect of transportation conditions on population aggregation in less developed areas is far larger than that in developed areas.It also indicates that the HVR,SGNSSR,JLSR,YSCSR,and XJSR should develop their transportation systems with equalization.The SEPSR and QTSR should focus on the inner-county transportation,and IMHSR should fully implement regional transportation system construction.

Key words: county, spatial accessibility, population aggregation, Raster Cost Weighted

中图分类号: 

  • C924.24