地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (1): 13-28.doi: 10.11821/xb201001003

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

近30年珠穆朗玛峰国家自然保护区冰川变化的遥感监测

聂勇1, 2, 张镱锂1, 刘林山1, 张继平1, 2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-09-01 修回日期:2009-11-18 出版日期:2010-01-25 发布日期:2010-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 张镱锂, 研究员, 博导。E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:聂勇(1981- ), 博士生。从事自然地理学综合研究与土地利用/覆被变化研究。E-mail: nieyong@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院对外合作重点项目(GJHZ0954); 国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2005CB422006); HKKH Partnership for Ecosystem Management

Monitoring Glacier Change Based on Remote Sensing in the Mt. Qomolangma National Nature Preserve,1976-2006

NIE Yong1,2; ZHANG Yi-li1; LIU Lin-shan1; ZHANG Ji-ping1,2   

  1. 1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Beijing 100101; China; 
    2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.Beijing 100049; China
  • Received:2009-09-01 Revised:2009-11-18 Online:2010-01-25 Published:2010-01-25
  • Supported by:

    The External Cooperation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.GJHZ0954; National Basic Research Program of China, No.2005CB422006; Institutional Consolidation for the Coordinated and Integrated Monitoring of Natural Resources towards Sustainable Development and Environmental Conservation in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya Mountain Complex

摘要:

利用1976、1988和2006年的3期陆地卫星遥感数据,采用面向对象的解译方法并结合专家知识分类规则自动提取珠穆朗玛峰国家自然保护区(以下简称珠峰保护区)3个时期的冰川信息,并利用遥感、地理信息系统和图谱的方法对冰川时空分布特征和变化及其原因与不确定性进行了分析。结果如下:(1)2006年珠峰保护区内冰川面积为2710.17±0.011km2,为研究区总面积的7.41%,主要分布在研究区南部海拔4700~6800m的高山区;(2)1976-2006年,珠峰保护区冰川持续退缩明显,总面积减少501.91±0.035km2,冰湖扩张迅速(净增加36.88±0.035km2);研究区南坡子流域冰川退缩率(16.79%)高于北坡子流域(14.40%);珠峰保护区冰川以退缩为主,退缩冰川主要分布于海拔4700~6400m,退缩区上限海拔为6600~6700m;(3)1976年以来,气温显著上升和降水减少是冰川退缩的关键因素。

关键词: 遥感, 冰川变化, 冰川退缩, 珠穆朗玛峰国家自然保护区, 喜马拉雅山

Abstract:

Based on Landsat TM(/MSS) images in 1976,1988 and 2006,glacier extents in the three periods in the Mt.Qomolangma National Nature Preserve(QNNP) have been automatically derived by object-oriented image interpretation method combined with expert knowledge rules and field surveys.Spatial-temporal distribution and changes of glaciers are analyzed with the aid of GIS,RS and Tupu method.Results show that(1) The glacial area at QNNP in 2006,located mainly in the southern high mountain region with elevations of 4700-6800 m,amounted to 2710.17±0.011 km2,about 7.41% of the whole study area;(2) During 1976-2006,glaciers tended to shrink significantly by 501.91±0.035 km2 in total,and glacial lakes expanded rapidly with an increase of 36.88±0.035 km2;the rate of glacier retreat is higher in sub-basins on the southern slope(16.79%) of Himalayas than those on the northern slope(14.40%);(3) Most glaciers retreated,mainly occurred at elevations of 4700-6400 m,and the estimated upper limit of retreated zone is between 6600 m and 6700 m;(4) The temperature rise along with precipitation decrease is considered to be the key factor of glacier retreat in the region.

Key words: remote sensing, glacier retreat, Mt. Qomolangma National Nature Preserve, Himalayas, Mt. Everest

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6