地理学报

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京城区公共交通满意度模型与空间结构评价

季  珏1, 2,  高晓路1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-09 修回日期:2009-08-05 出版日期:2009-12-25 发布日期:2010-03-31
  • 通讯作者: 高晓路 (1969-), 研究员, 博士, 主要研究方向: 城市规划政策, 城市人居环境评价, 土地利用规划, 住房与房地产经济, GIS与空间分析。E-mail: gaoxl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:季珏 (1985-), 硕士研究生, 研究方向为城市地理, GIS空间分析。E-mail: jitutu99@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40671063); 中科院知识创新工程重要方向性项目 (K2CX2-YW-321)

Evaluating Urban Structure by Modeling Satisfaction towards Public Transportation

 JI Jue-1, 2,  Gao Xiaolu-1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of  hinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2009-01-09 Revised:2009-08-05 Online:2009-12-25 Published:2010-03-31
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40671063; Knowledge Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.K2CX2-YW-321

摘要:

以北京市城八区的公共交通为切入点,探索了城市空间结构的评价分析方法。通过“公共交通可达性”指标,将城市实体空间结构的指标与居民对公共交通的满意度连系起来,建立了以满意度为目标的城市空间结构评价体系,并对提升城市空间结构的实体空间因子进行了实证分析。首先,对“公共交通可达性”的各项影响因子进行了梳理,从公共交通服务质量、区域经济特征、道路建设三个方面,提出了包括公交通达度、人口和经济集聚度、道路密度、区位指标等在内的城市公共交通可达性的评价指标体系。其次,构建了以居民满意度为因变量的公共交通可达性评价模型。分析定量揭示了公交站点配置、公交通达度、经济密度等因素对于城市空间结构的优化作用,同时分析表明,公共交通的优化需充分考虑不同属性的居民群体的空间分布规律。据此,从城市空间结构评价的角度分析了北京市公共交通中存在的问题,并提出如下建议:① 市政交通规划的重点应放在五环以内地区;② 实现800 m公交站点服务面积全覆盖;③ 加强各地与市区重要功能节点的公共交通联系来提高其通达度;④ 根据居民的分布和属性特征出台相应的公交服务政策提高不同居民群体的公共交通满意度。

关键词: 公共交通, 满意度, 可达性, 城市空间结构, 公交通达度, 北京

Abstract:

This paper developed a method to assess the appropriateness of urban structure via evaluating the accessibility of public transportation. Through a validated accessibility index, it combined the physical setting of urban environments with the residents' satisfactions toward public transportation. Taking Beijing as an example, this paper first analyzed the influencing factors of the accessibility of public transportation from three perspectives including public service, local development status, transportation and road construction. Then, it built a hierarchical logistic regression model of satisfaction. It was found that the satisfaction of people varied spatially, with the marginal effect of within the 5th Ring Road being lower than that outside the 5th Ring Road. The connectivity to the main places of the city by public transportation, and the density of bus stops within a distance of 800 m were found to have significantly affected the satisfaction of people toward public transportation. In addition, people of different attributes valued differently. The results had implications for improving the transportation environment of Beijing. (1) At present, the investment of public transportation should focus on the areas in the built-up areas inside the 5th Ring Road rather than the suburban areas. (2) It is socially desirable that the 800-m-service areas of bus stops cover the whole city; and according to the function of various areas, the optimal density of bus stops should be different. (3) The connectivity to the main function nodes of the city by public transportation should top the agenda on the planning of bus lines, as it can substantially improve the efficiency of public transportation system and the satisfaction of the people. (4) The spatial distribution of the people with different attributes such as age and income should be taken into account when local public transportation policies are made.

Key words: urban structure, satisfaction, public transportation, accessibility, connectivity