地理学报

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北京城市居民职住分离的空间组织特征

孟斌   

  1. 北京联合大学应用文理学院,北京 100191
  • 收稿日期:2009-02-12 修回日期:2009-07-23 出版日期:2009-12-25 发布日期:2010-03-31
  • 作者简介:孟斌 (1971-), 男, 副教授, 硕士生导师, 中国地理学会会员 (S110001017M), 主要研究方向地理信息系统理论和方法及其应用。E-mail: mengbin@ygi.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40871079); 中国博士后科学基金项目 (20060400136); 北京市教育委员会科技计划项目 (KM200711417013)

The Spatial Organization of the Separation between Jobs and Residential Locations in Beijing

MENG Bin   

  1. College of Arts & Sciences, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2009-02-12 Revised:2009-07-23 Online:2009-12-25 Published:2010-03-31
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40871079; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No.20060400136; Science and Technology Planning Project of Beijing Municipal Education Commission, No.KM200711417013

摘要:

利用地理信息系统和空间分析技术,选择北京市为实证研究对象,在近万份实际调查问卷数据基础上,从城市空间结构变迁的角度审视北京城市居民职住分离的空间组织特征和职住分离的影响因素。研究发现北京城市居民单程通勤时间为38分钟,其中通勤时间超过40分钟的人群比例为43.7%,可见北京市居民职住分离程度比较严重;同时,从居住地和工作地的角度都可以发现北京居民职住分离现象在区县尺度和街道尺度存在着明显的空间差异;总体而言城市中心区域职住分离情况好于郊区,在郊区中重点开发的卫星城镇工作机会较多,在这些区域就业者的职住分离问题并不严重;而一些重点建设的大型居住社区由于功能过于单一,这些区域的居民职住分离问题十分突出。集聚分析表明,北京市存在明显的就业和居住集聚区,并且两者在空间上的错位比较明显;对城市居民的通勤流向的分析表明,向心流还是主体通勤方向,但也存在一定比例的逆向通勤,表明北京城市化过程中居民职住分离的空间组织特征正在逐渐演变。

关键词: 职住分离, 城市空间结构, 空间分析, 北京

Abstract:

This study chose Beijing as a case. It was based on the questionnaire answered by nearly 10000 people in 2005. The Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial analysis were used to analyze the characteristics of the separation between jobs and residential locations in Beijing. Based on the case study, we found that the separation between jobs and residential locations has become a serious phenomenon in Beijing. The average commuter time is 38.0 minutes, and more than 43.7% of the workers spend more than 40 minutes on commuting. The spatial analyses show that there are spatial differences, which may be caused by the spatial structure of Beijing. The problem of the separation is not too serious in the urban central areas. However, as some suburban areas were designed to be large living communities, the residents in these areas faced a more serious problem of the separation between jobs and residential locations. On the other hand, people living in satellite towns have more chances to find jobs, so the problem of the separation between working places and home is not serious. The cluster analysis shows that there are several visible clusters of employment concentration in Beijing. The locations of these clusters are "Spatial Mis-match" with the population concentration. This "Spatial Mis-match" is decided by the rent price of the land in the city. The flow of the commuters is another index of the separation between jobs and residential locations. In Beijing, the "To Center" flows are the main commuter flow now, although there are "Out of Center" flows at the same time. This suggests that the spatial organization of the separation between jobs and residential locations is changing gradually in Beijing.

Key words: separation between jobs and residential locations, urban spatial structure, spatial analysis, Beijing