地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (11): 1342-1352.doi: 10.11821/xb200911006

• 水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三峡水库调度运行初期荆江与洞庭湖区的水文效应

李景保1, 常疆1, 吕殿青1, 朱翔1, 卢承志2, 周跃云1, 邓楚雄1   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,长沙410081;
    2. 湖南水利水电勘测设计研究总院,长沙410007
  • 收稿日期:2009-08-18 修回日期:2009-09-15 出版日期:2009-11-25 发布日期:2010-04-16
  • 作者简介:李景保(1951-), 男, 教授, 湖南桂阳人, 主要从事水文学与水资源及自然灾害方面的研究。E-mail:lijingbao1951@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    湖南省省级重点学科自然地理学项目; 湖南省科技计划项目(2007Fj302); 湖南师范大学青年优秀人才计划项目

The Hydrological Effect between Jingjiang River and Dongting Lake during Initial Period of Three Gorges Project Operation

LI Jing-bao1, CHANG Jiang1, LU Dian-qing1, ZHU Xiang1, LU Cheng-zhi2, ZHOU Yue-yun1, DENG Chu-xiong1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment Science,Hunan Normal University,Changsha 410081,China;
    2. Hunan Hydro & Power Design Institute,Changsha 410007,China
  • Received:2009-08-18 Revised:2009-09-15 Online:2009-11-25 Published:2010-04-16
  • Supported by:

    The Key Discipline Building Program on Physical Geography of Hunan Province; Project for Science & Technology of Hunan Province, No.2007Fj302; Plan on Young and Excellent Persons of Hunan Normal University

摘要:

以1951-2008 年实测水文资料为依据,运用对比方法,分析了三峡水库调度运行初期,荆江与洞庭湖区的连琐水文效应。结果表明:① 荊江冲刷量占宜昌至城陵矶段的78.9%,其平均冲刷强度也远高于该河段;② 三口分流比减少2.33%、分沙比减少2.78%;③ 三口多年平均入湖径流泥沙比依次减少7.7%及24.4%;④ 洞庭湖区淤积速率减缓26.7%、汛期水量较同期多年平均值偏少20.2%,使湖区连年季节性缺水,前者对延长湖泊寿命有利,后者酿成了连 年性的夏秋连旱灾害、居民饮用水、生产用水和航运等水安全问题以及涉及到了珍禽鸟类数量和种类减少,东方田鼠种群数量极度膨胀等生态系统的稳定性;⑤ 湖口多年平均输沙泄洪能力增强了26.6%和3.7%,避免了溃垸决堤之灾。并认为,为适应新的江湖关系变化,必须进一步优化调整三峡水库调度运行方案,重新审视江湖治理的理念,维系江湖连通的纽带。

关键词: 三峡水厍运行初期, 江湖水沙关系, 水文效应, 洞庭湖

Abstract:

Based on the measured hydrological data from 1951 to 2008, the linkage hydrological effect between Jingjiang River and Dongting Lake was analyzed by comparative method after the operation of Three Gorges Project. Firstly, the results showed that the scour amount in Jingjiang River was 78.9% of the total scour amount from Yichang to Chenglingji, and that its average scour intensity was higher than the total scour intensity from Yichang to Chenglingji, too. Secondly, the dividing-water and dividing-sand ratios in the three bayous of the Jingjiang River were reduced by 2.33% and 2.78% separately. Thirdly, the average runoff and sediment in the three bayous flowing into the Dongting Lake were reduced by 7.7% and 24.4%, respectively. Fourthly, the speed of sediment filling-up was lowered by 26.7%, which would prolong natural life of the Dongting Lake. In flood season, the runoff amount of the Jingjiang River flowing into the Dongting Lake was 20.2% less than the multi-year average value. The decreases of runoff amount induced droughts in summer and fall, as well as shortage of drinking water and industry water, shipping safety, similarly led to the decrease of birds and the increase of the oriental field mice. Finally, the multi-year average values of sediment and flood discharge capacity in bayous were respectively increased by 26.6% and 3.7%, which protected embankment effectively.

Key words: initial period of Three Gorges Project operation, relations between water and sediment in the river and lake, hydrological effect, Dongting Lak