地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (11): 1292-1302.doi: 10.11821/xb200911002

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市扩展对气温观测的影响及其高估程度

邵全琴1, 孙朝阳1,2, 刘纪远1, 班艺舫3, 何剑锋1, 匡文慧1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039;
    3. 瑞典皇家理工学院,斯德哥尔摩,S-10044
  • 收稿日期:2009-05-05 修回日期:2009-07-12 出版日期:2009-11-25 发布日期:2010-04-16
  • 通讯作者: 刘纪远,男,研究员,博士生导师,主要研究方向:土地利用土地覆被变化及其生态效应。E-mail: liujy@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:liujy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:邵全琴, 女, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要研究方向: GIS 与生态信息。E-mail: shaoqq@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家973 计划项目(2009CB421105); 瑞典研究链接计划(2006-24724-44416-13); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-305-3); 国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAC08B00)

Impact of Urban Expansion on Meteorological Observation Data and Overestimation to Regional Air Temperature in China

SHAO Quan-qin1, SUN Chao-yang1,2, LIU Ji-yuan1, BAN Yi-fang3, HE Jian-feng1, KUANG Wen-hui1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039,China
    3. Royal Institute of Technology,Stockholm,S-10044
  • Received:2009-05-05 Revised:2009-07-12 Online:2009-11-25 Published:2010-04-16
  • Supported by:

    National 973 Program, No.2009CB421105; Swedish Research Links, No.2006-24724-44416-13; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-YW-305-3; National Key Technology R&D Program, No.20006BAC08B00

摘要:

由于中国城市扩展导致部分气象站点被动进入城市内部,从而造成对区域气温的高估。本文利用遥感多期影像对中国700 多个气象站点各历史时期的下垫面进行判别,得到“进城”站点及其进城时间。通过比较“进城”站点的观测数据和背景气温,计算出70 年代以来“进城”气象站点上的平均热岛效应强度,并对热岛效应强度的季节性差异进行了分析,得出70 年代以来秋冬季节的热岛强度高于春季和夏季的结论。通过比较真实气温和背景气温的空间数据,识别出了气温高估区域,得出中国东部地区的气温高估略高于中部地区,东部地区和中部地区的气温高估均远高于西部地区的结论。通过计算真实气温和背景气温序列的年平均气温变化趋势,得出近40 年来全国的增温值约为1.58 oC,其中因城市扩展带来的增温贡献约为0.01 oC,在气温高估的核心区域的贡献约为0.09 oC。

关键词: 城市, 气象站, 遥感, 气象数据空间插值, 热岛效应, 气温

Abstract:

Since the 1970s, some meteorological observation stations in China 'entered'into cities passively due to urban expansion. The changes in underlying surface and building environment around the stations have had influences on the observation of air temperature,leading to overestimation on the regional air temperature. In this study, the surface underlying 756 meteorological stations across China was firstly identified based on the MSS images of the 1970s, TM images fore-and-aft 1990, and ETM images fore-and-aft 2000 and 2005, to distinguish the stations that 'entered' into cities. Then, after removing the observed data at these stations influenced by urban expansion, we built a dataset of background air temperature by interpolating the observed data at all the left stations. The average Urban Heat-island Intensity (HI) since 1970 was estimated by comparing the two datasets. The results show that overestimation on regional air temperature does occur due to urban expansion, with higher HI in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. Spatially, the overestimation is relatively higher in eastern China than in the middle part of China, however it is much higher in the above two regions than in western China. In the last 40 years the average temperature in China increased by about 1.58 oC, among which about 0.09 oC was attributed to urban expansion in some regions.

Key words: meteorological stations, RS, meteorological data interpolation, urban heat-island intensity, temperature