地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (7): 817-827.doi: 10.11821/xb200907006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

安徽蚌埠禹会村遗址4.5-4.0 ka BP龙山文化的环境考古

张广胜1, 2,  朱诚1,  王吉怀3,  朱光耀4,  马春梅1,  郑朝贵5,  赵兰会6,  李中轩1,  朱青1,  金爱春7   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210093;
    2. 皖西学院城市建设与环境系,安徽 六安 237012;
    3. 中国社会科学院考古研究所,北京 100710;
    4. 安徽蚌埠学院人文与社会科学部,安徽 蚌埠 233000;
    5. 滁州学院国土信息工程系,安徽 滁州 239012;
    6. 蚌埠市博物馆,安徽 蚌埠 233000;
    7. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210097
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-07 修回日期:2009-03-30 出版日期:2009-07-25 发布日期:2010-04-21
  • 通讯作者: 朱诚 (1954-), 男, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事地貌与第四纪、环境演变与全球变化等研究 E-mail: zhuchengnj @yahoo.com.cn
  • 作者简介:张广胜 (1975-), 男, 安徽六安人, 讲师, 博士生, 主要研究方向为区域环境演变与环境考古。 E-mail: zhanggs@wxc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目 (2006BAK21B02); 皖西学院人文地理学重点学科基金; 国家自然科学基金项目 (40701190); 高等学校博士学科点新教师专项科研基金 (20070284067) 资助

Environmental Archaeology of Longshan Culture Period on Yuhuicun Site from 4.5 ka to 4.0 ka BP, Bengbu, Anhui

ZHANG Guangsheng1, 2,  ZHU Cheng1,  WANG Jihuai3,  ZHU Guangyao4,  MA Chunmei1,  ZHENG Chaogui5,  ZHAO Lanhui6,  LI Zhongxuan1,  ZHU Qing1,  JIN Aichun7   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Department of Urban Construction and Environment, West Anhui University, Lu'an 237012, Anhui, China;
    3. Institute of Archaeological Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100710, China;
    4. Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Bengbu College, Bengbu 233000, Anhui, China;
    5. Department of Land Information Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239012, Anhui, China;
    6. The Museum of Bengbu, Bengbu 233000, Anhui, China;
    7. School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China
  • Received:2009-01-07 Revised:2009-03-30 Online:2009-07-25 Published:2010-04-21
  • Supported by:

    National Technology R&D Program, No.2006BAK21B02; The Key Subject Foundation of Human Geography in West Anhui University; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40701190; University Doctoral New Teachers' Foundation, No.20070284067

摘要:

通过对淮河流域的安徽蚌埠禹会村典型龙山文化时期遗址的ABYT2004探方厚150 cm剖面的27个样品的磁化率、Rb/Sr、粒度和重矿晶体形态等多环境代用指标,以及遗址周围地貌形态演变的分析,结合AMS14C年代全面提取4.5-4.0 ka BP龙山文化时期的环境演变信息,探讨环境变迁对该区龙山文化发展的影响机制:(1) 4500 a BP气候湿润,淮河流域处于高水位,遗址及周边被水淹没,遗址考古学文化尚未出现;(2) 4500 a BP开始气候趋向干旱,淮河及其支流水位开始下降,龙山文化开始出现和发展;(3) 龙山文化中后期环境开始趋向暖湿,降雨量增加,河流水位开始上涨,洪水灾害频发,至4100 a BP前后是淮河流域洪灾发生的高峰期,这是大禹治水史实的客观前提;(4) 4100 a BP后的龙山文化晚期气候开始向冷干过渡,河流水位下降,遗址区农业生产受到制约,龙山文化迁移消失。

关键词: 环境变化;4.5-4.0 ka BP;龙山文化;大禹治水;禹会村遗址;淮河流域

Abstract:

Based on the samples from the west wall of the ABYT2004 at Yuhuicun Site, the environmental substitute indexes such as the grain-size, Rb/Sr, heavy-mineral (Zircon) and magnetic susceptibility were analyzed. The age of archaeological stratigraphy was determined by the AMS14C. The results reveal that the environment evolution induced to the climate changes from 4.5kaBP to 4.0kaBP, Longshan Culture Period. Besides, the information of the ancient human activities and the cultural heritage data withdrawn from the Longshan Culture archaeological stratigraphy, shows that the Longshan culture development was an influenced mechanism. Archaeological excavation shows the following in the study area: (1) In the period before 4500aBP, from 4500aBP to the middle of the period of Longshan Culture, to the later period of Longshan Culture and to 4000aBP, most parts of the region experienced climate change such as warm and wet, cold and dry, warm and wet, cold and dry. (2) Before 4500aBP of the wet period, the Huaihe River water reached a very high level so that the Yuhuicun Site and the surrounding area were submerged and people could not live in the area around the site. From 4500aBP of the dry period, the water level in the Huaihe River and its branches started to descend. (3) Around 4100aBP, in the later period of Longshan culture, it again became cold and dry, and the river water flooded the land again. During this period, the agricultural activity was destroyed, and Longshan Culture disappeared. (4) The environmental information in sedimentary strata and the historical records from the literature confirmed each other, which reveals the close relationship between the Yuhuicun Site and the "Dayu Controlling Flood" recorded in historical documents.

Key words: environmental change, 4.5-4.0 kaBP, Longshan Culture, Dayu Controlling Flood, Yuhuicun Site, Huaihe River