地理学报

• 论文 • 上一篇    

转型期中国城市贫困和剥夺的空间模式

袁媛1,  吴缚龙2,  许学强1   

  1. 1. 中山大学城市与区域规划系,城市与区域研究中心,广州 510275;
    2. 英国卡迪夫大学城市与区域规划学院,  英国 卡迪夫 CF10 3WA
  • 收稿日期:2008-10-15 修回日期:2009-02-20 出版日期:2009-06-25 发布日期:2010-04-15
  • 作者简介:袁媛 (1976-), 女, 博士, 副教授, 硕士生导师, 主要研究方向: 城市地理、城市规划与设计。中国地理学会会员 (S110006737m)。E-mail: yyuanah@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40701049; 40771067); 教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(NCET-07-0889)

The Spatial Pattern of Poverty and Deprivation in Transitional Chinese City: Analysis of Area-based Indicators and Individual Data

YUAN Yuan1,  WU Fulong2,  XU Xueqiang1   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Regional Planning/Center for Urban and Regional Research, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University, CF10, 3WA, Cardiff, UK
  • Received:2008-10-15 Revised:2009-02-20 Online:2009-06-25 Published:2010-04-15
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40701049; No.40771067; Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, No.NCET-07-0889

摘要:

利用普查数据、民政数据和问卷调查资料,从城市宏观空间与个体微观层面,系统检测了转型时期中国城市贫困和城市剥夺的空间模式及形成原因。研究发现:城市贫困和剥夺具有在内城区重合、外围区分离的特点。内城居住区的户籍贫困人口在住房、教育、设施等多方面处于被剥夺状况,外围的企业配套区户籍贫困人口则没有很明显的被剥夺状况,外来人口聚居区的低收入和贫困农民工处于被剥夺状况。究其原因,计划经济时代和转型时期的城市住房、建设和更新等空间政策的共同作用,直接导致了户籍贫困人口和农民工生活状况的差异,进而产生了迥异于西方城市特征的中国城市贫困和剥夺的空间模式。

关键词: 贫困和剥夺, 空间模式, 转型时期, 地域指标, 个体数据, 中国

Abstract:

 In transitional China, part of urban population has experienced poverty along with the adoption of a market-based economy and the deepening reform of social welfare system since the 1990s. However, the current literature, which is mainly concentrated on economic dimension and absolute poverty, neglects multiple dimensions of new urban poverty and the comparison of absolute and relative poverty. Based on a brief review of western literature on poverty and deprivation, this paper provides a hypothesis that there exists a combination of urban poverty and deprivation in inner city and a separation in outer city in transitional socialist countries. This paper takes Guangzhou as a case study for spatial analysis. Firstly, the MLSP (Mninimum Living Standard Programme) recipients data and fifth census data are used to calculate comprehensive socres of multiple deprivations on the sub-district scale by factor analysis, and to educe new pattern by overlapping the spatial distribution of poverty and deprivation. One of the new patterns is poverty-concentrated and mutiple-deprived area mainly located in inner city, and the others are poverty-based area without deprivation and deprivated area without poverty which are mainly located in outer city. Secondly, in order to avoid ecological fallacy and prove the hyphothesis entirely, this paper analyzes individual data from a survey on six cities and eighteen neighbourhoods. This paper sets a threshold of deprivation at individual level by factor analysis and index judgement. Poor families in deprivated condition are mainly from neighbourhoods located in inner city, and the location quotient of poor families without deprivation is higher than the average level in workers, village in outer city, and the location quotient of deprived families without poverty is higher in rural migrants, enclave in outer city. Thirdly, this paper argues that the mechanism of this new spatial pattern of urban poverty and deprivation is rooted in the uneven outcome of spatial policies both in socialist and transitional China. The uneven policies, consisting of housing policy, construction policy and regeneration policy, resulted in different living conditions of registered urban poor and rural migrants, which led to spatial pattern different from that of Western countries under market economy.

Key words: urban poverty and deprivation, spatial pattern, transitional period, area-based indicators, individual data, city, China