地理学报

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

南京古都景观核心和生态文化研究

姚亦锋   

  1. 南京大学建筑学院,  南京210093
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-18 修回日期:2009-03-12 出版日期:2009-06-25 发布日期:2010-04-15
  • 作者简介:姚亦锋 (1963-), 男, 副教授, 硕士生导师。中国地理学会会员。主要研究方向是自然环境变迁, 风景园林规划, 城镇景观规划, 历史遗产保护。E-mail: york2020@vip.163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40471058); 建设部软科学研究项目(06-R4-10)

 Essential Geography Landscapes and Ecological Culture in Nanjing

YAO Yifeng   

  1. Architecture Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2008-08-18 Revised:2009-03-12 Online:2009-06-25 Published:2010-04-15
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40471058; Project for Soft Science from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, No.06-R4-10

摘要:

探讨建立以地理景观为视角的古都风貌研究思路新框架。目前中国的古都风貌保护规划往往是从建筑学角度出发,而缺少从地理格局角度的古都景观研究。南京地理格局使其历史古都发展具有独特深厚的景观传统,主要结构是:3条山脉、2条河流和3个湖泊。南京从其诞生到后来城市几次大的变化都是依据这个自然地理系统而构思规划。现代南京城市发展支离破碎地分解了历史上的连绵山峦整体,河流水系网络已经断断续续。本文研究思路是顺延山峦与河流脉络调查分析古都遗址,探寻现状山脉河流系统之中,古都文化景观格局在时空变化和演替规律。进而认定和寻求景观系统之中的历史城市发展的地理关键内核,以地理景观分析并规划南京古都景观保护:以连绵丘岗山系、河流城濠为骨干,保持山体轮廓的连续性,河流水网的完整性;以自然山水地形为纽带贯通各自相对独立的历史遗迹;以明朝城垣、历史街区为网络,以及分散在各地的重点建筑保护范围,构成完整的古都风貌保护的格局。把风景的概念扩大到整个城市区域内,使得自然资源保护、土地利用与景观规划结合为一体。

关键词: 南京, 地理格局, 景观变迁, 遗产廊道, 古都风貌规划

Abstract:

Historical cityscapes have changed because they were the expressions of the dynamic interaction between natural and cultural forces in geographical condition. Geography was the most stable, inheritable and lasting forces for its founding and development. Therefore, usually the planning of cityscapes is only limited in the architectural space, from individual buildings, streets and blocks to the whole city. My research is from the viewpoint of geography system to study the historical changes of the cityscape. Nanjing, a city located along the Yangtze River, originated 2500 years ago where ten dynasties established their capitals. Nanjing's geographical condition is characterized by three ranges of low mountains and hills, two branch rivers and three lakes. A well known praised name for ancient Nanjing: Zhongshan Mountain was taken as a dragon prone and Stone City was as a tiger crouch. From its boring time to the last dynasty the planning ideas of Nanjing's landscape was in the line with the system of its mountains and hills, lakes and rivers. However, modern Nanjing has been departing farther from the background of the harmonious development of city and nature for contemporary construction. The mountain ranges with the historically gathered "imperial spirit of capital" has been fatally ruined and dissected. My research focuses on the following ideas: an analysis of the characteristics of systems of the mountains and rivers in the historical periods, and an investigation of sites of historical sites along with the system, in order to search for the laws of historical evolutions and spatial structure changes of cultural landscape in geographical system. Further research is needed to get a better understanding of the key core and the landmark in historical geographical condition which once played an important role in its origin and development process. Thus distinguishing and preserving the sites is important for keeping the characteristics of the cityscape, conserving the natural continuous characteristics of mountain ranges and rivers, identifying geographical system to composite the mountains, rivers, urban park zones, avenues and Ming Dynasty wall into a whole landscape system, and extending the traditional preservation planning and cityscapes planning to that of geographical landscape system.

Key words: Nanjing, geographical condition, natural form change, ancient cityscape preservation, landscape planning