地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (5): 619-628.doi: 10.11821/xb200905011

• 地表环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海市崇明岛农田土壤重金属的环境质量评价

孙超,陈振楼,毕春娟,刘耀龙,张翠,王东启,史贵涛,叶明武   

  1. 华东师范大学地理信息科学教育部重点实验室,上海200062
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-30 修回日期:2009-02-12 出版日期:2009-05-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 通讯作者: 陈振楼,教授,博士生导师,E-mail: zlchen@geo.ecnu.edu.cn E-mail:zlchen@geo.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:孙超(1985-),男,硕士生,研究方向为城市水资源与水环境。E-mail: keaiachao@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家“十一五”重大水专项(2008ZX07317-006);国家自然科学基金项目(40730526;40701164);上海市“十 一五”重大科技攻关项目(07DZ12037)

Evaluation on Environmental Quality of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of Chongming Island, Shanghai

SUN Chao,CHEN Zhenlou,BI Chunjuan,LIU Yaolong, ZHANG Cui,WANG Dongqi,SHI Guitao,YE Mingwu   

  1. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education,East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062,China
  • Received:2008-12-30 Revised:2009-02-12 Online:2009-05-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Key Water Program during the 11th Five-Year Plan Period,No.2008ZX07317-006;National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.40730526;No.40701164; Shanghai Key Technologies R&D Program of Shanghai during the 11th Five-Year Plan Period,No.07DZ12037

摘要:

通过对上海市崇明岛28 个菜地土壤表层样品、65 个稻田土壤表层样品及9 个西瓜地 土壤表层样品的分析测试, 利用国家、行业和地方的相关标准评价了农田土壤重金属(Pb、 Cd、Cr、As、Hg) 的环境质量状况。研究发现: 崇明岛农田土壤重金属的总体含量为Pb 21.597 mg·kg-1、Cd 0.176 mg·kg-1、Cr 69.395 mg·kg-1、As 9.209 mg·kg-1、Hg 0.128 mg·kg-1。 与上海市土壤背景值相比, 除Pb、Cr 外, 其余重金属平均含量均高于其背景值, Cd、As 和 Hg 分别高出背景值33.0%、1.2%和26.3%。在GIS 软件支持下, 通过空间插值分析了研究区 农田土壤重金属含量的空间分布特征, 结果发现, 农田土壤质量整体尚好, 土壤生态率为 1.26%, 优良率为97.14%, 合格率为1.47%, 不合格率为0.12%。以背景值为标准, 崇明岛 农田土壤Pb、Cd、Cr、As、Hg 的超标率分别为10.1%、85.7%、27.0%、55.4 %、55.2%; 3 种土地利用类型中, 菜地受重金属污染最为严重, 这主要与菜地施用更多农药有关。崇明岛 重金属的年沉降通量分别为Pb 7735.470 μg·m-2·a-1、Cd 208.432 μg·m-2·a-1、As 2237.738 μg· m-2·a-1、Hg 52.783 μg·m-2·a-1, 农作物秸秆焚烧处理是崇明岛大气重金属沉降的重要来源, 大 气沉降对崇明岛农田土壤重金属有较大的影响。

关键词: 农田土壤, 重金属, 评价, 崇明

Abstract:

In order to analyze the contents of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg) in agricultural surface soils, a large scale survey was conducted in Chongming Island. 28 soil samples were collected from vegetable plot, 65 samples were collected from paddy fields and 9 samples were collected from watermelon fields. Different assessment standards of heavy metals were also used for comparison. Results showed that the content of Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg averaged 21.597 mg·kg-1, 0.176 mg·kg-1, 69.395 mg·kg-1, 9.209 mg·kg-1 and 0.128 mg· kg-1, respectively. In comparison with the background value of soil in Shanghai, mean concentrations of heavy metals in soils all exceeded their corresponding natural background values, except for Pb and Cr. The contents of Cd, As and Hg were 33.0%, 1.2% and 26.3% higher than the background value of Shanghai, respectively. In addition, inverse distance interpolation (IDW) method was also applied to study the spatial variability of heavy metals based on GIS. The results indicated that most of agricultural soils were good, and the ratio of ecology, good soil, certified soil and disqualified soil were 1.26%, 97.14%, 1.47% and 0.12%, respectively. Taking the background value as a reference, the ratios of all the soil samples above the limit were Pb 10.1%, Cd 85.7%, Cr 27.0%, As 55.4% and Hg 55.2%, respectively. Of the three land use types, vegetable plot was polluted most seriously by heavy metals, which is probably related to the over-application of pesticides. The annual deposition fluxes of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were 7735.470 μg·m-2·a-1, 208.432 μg·m-2·a-1, 2237.738 μg·m-2·a-1 and 52.783 μg·m-2·a-1, respectively.

Key words: agricultural soil, heavy metals, evaluation, Chongming Islan