地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (5): 581-591.doi: 10.11821/xb200905007

• 寒区旱区研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

近40 年西藏怒江河谷盆地的气候特征及变化趋势

杜军1,2, 翁海卿3, 袁雷2, 马鹏飞2, 拉巴2   

  1. 1. 中国气象局成都高原气象研究所,成都610071;
    2. 西藏自治区气候中心,拉萨850001;
    3. 西藏自治区气象局,拉萨850001
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-28 修回日期:2009-03-15 出版日期:2009-05-25 发布日期:2009-05-25
  • 作者简介:杜军(1969-),男,贵州绥阳人,正研级高工,主要从事高原气候变化和农业气候研究。 E-mail: dujun0891@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40865008);中国气象局成都高原气象研究所项目(LPM2008010)

The Climate Characteristics and Changing Trends over the Nujiang River Basin in Tibet from 1971 to 2008

DU Jun1,2, WENG Haiqing3, YUAN Lei2, MA Pengfei2, LHAK Pa2   

  1. 1. Institute of Plateau Meteorology,China Meteorological Administration,Chengdu 610071,China;
    2. Tibet Climatic Centre,Lhasa 850001,China;
    3. Tibet Meteorological Bureau,Lhasa 850001,China
  • Received:2008-12-28 Revised:2009-03-15 Online:2009-05-25 Published:2009-05-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.40865008;Open Lab Foundation of Institute of Plateau Meteorology,CMA,Chengdu,No. LPM2008010

摘要:

利用1971-2008 年西藏怒江流域9 个气象站逐月平均气温、平均最高气温、平均最低 气温、降水量、日照时数等资料, 分析了近40a 怒江流域年、季气象要素的变化趋势, 并计 算讨论了变化趋势与经纬度、海拔高度的相关。结果表明: 近40a 流域年平均气温以0.26 oC/10a 的速率显著升高, 增暖趋势比中国东北和西北弱, 比淮河和华南强, 与青藏高原相近。 最高气温和最低气温都出现了增高的趋势, 年平均气温日较差表现为一致的减小趋势, 为-0. 13~-0.57 oC/10a; 年降水量以21.0 mm/10a 的速率显著增加, 各季降水均呈现增加趋势; 年日 照时数平均每10 年减少31.7 h, 以夏季减幅最突出, 减幅比黄河流域、青藏高原东侧大; 地 温升高明显, 流域上游季节性冻土最大冻结深度呈显著变浅趋势, 以安多最明显。日照时数 与降水量负相关显著, 与夏、秋季大气水汽压呈显著的负相关; 大部分站点日照时数的减少, 与大气水汽压的显著增加和降水量的增多关系密切。总云量与日较差存在显著负相关, 与夏 季降水量呈显著正相关, 相对湿度的变化不是总云量减少的主要原因。随着纬度的增加和海 拔高度的上升, 年平均气温升温幅度在加大, 年降水量增幅也增大。日照时数的变化趋势仅 与经度有着很好的正相关, 随着经度的增加, 冬季和夏季日照时数的减幅都在减小。

关键词: 怒江河谷盆地, 气象要素, 变化趋势, 纬度和海拔高度效

Abstract:

This paper studies the changing trend of annual and seasonal mean temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration etc. by using the observational data of 9 meteorological stations over the Nujiang River Basin in Tibet from 1971 to 2008. It also analyzes the variation trend of meteorological elements by climatic linear trend methods, and discusses the correlation between the linear trend of elements and latitude, altitude and longitude. The results show that the annual mean temperature has increased over the Nujiang River Basin with a rate of 0.26 oC/10a during the past 40 years, which is lower than that in Northeast China and Northwest China, and is higher than that in the Huaihe River basin and South China, and similar to that over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The trends of mean maximum and minimum temperatures are increasing, the trend of diurnal temperature range is significantly decreasing at a rate of (-0. 13~-0.57) oC/10a. The annual precipitation increases significantly and the linear increasing rate is 21.0mm/10a, while that in all seasons increases. The annual sunshine duration decreases over the Nujiang River Basin with a rate of -31.7 h/10a, and the maximum decrease is in summer, and the rate of decrease is greater than that in the Huanghe River basin and eastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. In addition, the variation of maximum frozen soil depth shows a significant declining trend over the upper reaches of the Nujiang River Basin in Tibet, resulting from the increasing soil temperature, especially in Amdo. Correlation analysis demonstrates that sunshine duration is significantly negative with precipitation (all seasons) and surface vapor pressure (in summer and autumn). Results indicate that the principal causes for the decrease of sunshine duration are the significant increase of surface vapor pressure and precipitation in most parts of the Nujiang River Basin. The correlation between total cloud amount and diurnal temperature range is negative significantly, and is positive evidently with precipitation in summer, hence the relative humidity is not the main affecting factor with the decrease of total cloud amount. The amplification of annual temperature and precipitation became greater with the increase of altitude and latitude. The linear trend of sunshine duration is positively related with longitude, and the decreasing amplitude of sunshine duration in summer and winter decreases with increasing longitude.

Key words: Nujiang River Basin, meteorological factor, linear trend, effects of latitude and altitud