地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (5): 541-552.doi: 10.11821/xb200905003

• 黄河水沙 • 上一篇    下一篇

泾河中游龙山文化晚期特大洪水水文学研究

李瑜琴1, 黄春长1, 查小春1, 庞奖励2   

  1. 1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院,西安710062;
    2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,杨凌712100
  • 收稿日期:2008-10-08 修回日期:2009-02-25 出版日期:2009-05-25 发布日期:2009-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 黄春长,E-mail: cchuang@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李瑜琴(1980-),女,山西偏关人,博士研究生,环境变迁专业。E-mail: liyuqin1014@stu.snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然基金项目(40771018);教育部博士点基金项目(20050718008);中科院水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤 侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室基金(10501-176);陕西省自然科学基金项目(2006D01)

Palaeoflood Occurrence in the Late Period of the Longshan Culture in the Middle Reaches of the Jinghe River

LI Yuqin1, HUANG Chunchang1, ZHA Xiaochun1, PANG Jiangli2   

  1. 1. College of Tourism and Environmental Sciences,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an 710062,China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau,Institute of Water and Soil Conservation,CAS and Ministry of Water Resources,Yangling 712100,Shaanxi,China
  • Received:2008-10-08 Revised:2009-02-25 Online:2009-05-25 Published:2009-05-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.40771018;Doctoral Fund from the Ministry of Education,No. 20050718008;State Key Laboratory Fund of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau,No.10501-176; Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi,No. 2006D01

摘要:

通过对泾河流域广泛深入的考察, 在泾河中游彬县至永寿基岩峡谷河段发现典型的全 新世古洪水平流沉积剖面, 进行了古洪水沉积学和水文学研究。对于采集的全新世地层剖面 序列样品, 进行粒度成分、磁化率、烧失量、CaCO3 含量等分析, 从沉积学角度证明了研究 剖面所夹洪水沉积物具有平流沉积特征, 为典型的洪水平流沉积物。根据地层学对比和剖面 自身龙山文化晚期陶片、烧土等文化遗物分析, 确定泾河在4200~4000 a BP 发生了特大洪水 事件, 并利用沉积学和水文学原理恢复其水位, 计算出古洪水洪峰流量为19490~22040 m3/s。 同时, 通过恢复现代大洪水、洪峰流量与流域面积关系对这种方法和古洪水洪峰流量计算结 果进行了验证。不仅延长泾河洪水水文数据序列到万年尺度, 而且为沿泾河的水利水电和交 通工程建设及沿岸地区城镇的防洪减灾提供了重要的基础数据, 具有重要的科学意义和应用 价值。

关键词: 泾河, 古洪水, 平流沉积物, 水文学, 龙山文

Abstract:

Through investigation of the middle reaches of the Jinghe River, we choose the slackwater deposits for palaeohydrology study. On the basis of field survey, samples of the slackwater deposits were collected and the grain-size distribution, the magnetic susceptibility variation, the loss on ignition and the content of calcium carbonate were determined. All of these indexes showed that the slackwater deposits were typical in the study area. According to the stratigraphic correlation and cultural remains including fragments of pottery and burnt earth, we identified the corresponding palaeoflood which occurred in the late period of Longshan Culture (4200-4000 a B.P.). Supported by the hydrological technique, we reconstructed that the peak discharges of the palaeofloods were 19490-22040 m3/s. Meanwhile, reconstruction of modern gauged flood proved the hydrological method was reliable. And the relationship between drainage area and flood peak discharge illustrated that the results were reasonable. Thus, the results prolong the flood data sequence of Jinghe River and provide significant data for engineering construction, flood control and disaster alleviation in the middle reaches of the Jinghe River.

Key words: Jinghe River, palaeoflood, slackwater deposits, palaeohydrology, Longshan Cultur