地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (5): 515-530.doi: 10.11821/xb200905001

• 黄河水沙 •    下一篇

黄河干流龙门至三门峡间泥沙沉积汇的研究

许炯心   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所;中国科学院水循环与地表过程重点实验室,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2008-11-06 修回日期:2009-02-05 出版日期:2009-05-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:许炯心(1948-),男,四川绵阳人。研究员,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110000878M) 。长期从事河流 地貌研究工作。E-mail: xujx@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40671019;50725930)

A Study of Sediment Sink between Longmen and Sanmenxia on the Yellow River

XU Jiongxin   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS;Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes,CAS,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2008-11-06 Revised:2009-02-05 Online:2009-05-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.40671019;No.50725930

摘要:

龙门—三门峡河段是黄河干流3 大沉积汇之一。运用泥沙收支平衡方法, 基于1920— 2006 年间长系列实测水沙资料, 研究了这一沉积汇的存贮、释放和泥沙输移过程及其变化。 研究表明, 87 年尺度上, 龙门—三门峡沉积汇泥沙存贮量的变化可以划分为4 个阶段: (1) 1920-1959 年, 处于“准自然” 状况下, 泥沙存贮量缓慢增加; (2) 1960-1967 年, 由于三门峡 水库拦沙, 导致泥沙存贮快速增加; (3) 1968-1985 年, 三门峡水库先后经历“滞洪排沙” 和 “蓄清排浑” 运用阶段, 泥沙的存贮与释放接近于平衡; (4) 1986-2006 年, 人类大量引水, 在 来沙量减小的情况下, 泥沙存贮量增加。在年内, 龙门—三门峡间泥沙沉积汇表现出泥沙的 存贮—释放过程的交替, 7 月至8 月主汛期, 表现为泥沙存贮; 9 月至次年5 月, 泥沙存贮量 为负值, 表现为泥沙释放。公元155 年至2006 年的1800 余年间, 龙门—潼关沉积汇的沉积 速率经历了一个由加速到减慢的旋回, 其形成原因可以用人类活动方式与强度的变化来解释。 在三门峡水库修建前的“准自然” 时期, 泥沙的存贮量和排沙比均与来水、来沙及其组合有 密切的关系。总来沙量越大, 含沙量越大, 来沙系数越大, 则泥沙存贮量越大而排沙比越小。

关键词: 沉积汇, 泥沙收支平衡, 泥沙存贮—释放, 水沙变化, 人类活动, 黄河, 黄河龙门—三门峡河

Abstract:

The Longmen-Sanmenxia reach of the middle Yellow River is one of the three major sediment sinks along the the mianstream of the Yellow River. Based on the concept of sediment budget and using the hydrometric data in the past 87 years, a study has been made on sediment storage, release and transport in this sediment sink. At the timescale of 80 years, the variation in sediment storage can be divided into four stages: (1) from 1920 to 1959, the Longmen-Sanmenxia sediment sink was in "quasi-natural" state, and sediment storage increased slowly; (2) from 1960 to 1967, due to sediment trapping of the Sanmenxia Reservoir, sedimentt storage increased rapidly; (3) from 1968 to 1985, the operational mode of the Sanmenxia reservoir was changed successively to "flood retention and sediment releasing afterwards" and "releasing sediment during high flow season and storing clear water during low flow season", sediment storage and release were nearly balanced each other; (3) from 1986 to 2006, water diversion increased rapidly, leading to an increase in sediment storage, although sediment input decreased. Within a year, sediment storage occurred during July and August, and sediment release occurred from September to the next May. During the 1800 years from 155 AD to 2006, the variation of sedimentation rate in the Longmen-Tongguan sink underwent a cycle from increase to decrease, which can be explained by the changed manner and intensity of human activities. During the "quasi-natural" stage from 1920 to 1959, the sediment storage and sediment delivery ratio in the Longmen-Sanmenxia sink were closely related with sediment and flow input to the sink.

Key words: sediment sink, sediment budget, sediment storage and release, human activity, the Yellow River, Longmen-Tongguan reach of the Yellow Rive