地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (4): 469-478.doi: 10.11821/xb200904009

• 土地利用与人居环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

1980 年以来中国耕地利用集约度的结构特征

陈瑜琦1,2, 李秀彬1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2008-11-03 修回日期:2009-02-24 出版日期:2009-04-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:陈瑜琦(1982-), 女, 博士研究生, 主要从事土地利用/ 土地覆被变化方面的研究。 E-mail: chenyq.06b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划课题(2006BAB15B02)

Structural Change of Agricultural Land Use Intensity and Its Regional Disparity in China

CHEN Yuqi1,2, LI Xiubin1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2008-11-03 Revised:2009-02-24 Online:2009-04-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Key Technology R&D Program, No.2006BAB15B02

摘要:

基于中国农产品成本收益资料与中国农业统计年鉴等基础数据, 在对耕地利用集约度 进行内部结构划分的基础上, 系统分析了1980-2006 年间中国粮食作物劳动集约度和资本集 约度及其构成的时空变化规律。结果表明: 国家尺度上的劳动集约度由1980 年的398.5 日 /hm2 快速降低到2006 年的130.25 日/hm2, 下降幅度达67.37%, 下降的阶段性明显。资本集约度总量不断上升, 其中种子、化肥和农药等增产性资本投入比重逐渐减小, 在四大资本投 入类型中所占比重由90.36% (1980 年) 下降到73.44% (2006 年), 相反, 作为省工性投入的机 械, 所占比重由9.64% (1980 年) 迅速增加到26.56% (2006 年), 资本投入的内部结构变化逐 渐成为影响中国粮食单产的重要因素。区域尺度上, 经济发达地区劳动投入相对较少, 资本 投入, 尤其是省工性资本投入比重较大, 农户在耕地利用中更加注重追求劳动生产率;而经 济相对落后地区劳动集约度较高, 资本集约度较低, 资本投入中仍以增产性投入为主, 体现 了当地农民在耕地利用中追求土地生产率最大化的经营目标。

关键词: 劳动集约度, 资本集约度, 省工性投入, 增产性投入,

Abstract:

Based on the cost-income data of farm produce and the China Agricultural Yearbook, this paper divided the intensity of cultivated land use into labor intensity and capital intensity, then analyzed their temporal and spatial change at both country and provincial scale in the period of 1980-2006. The results showed that: (1) On country scale, labor intensity of food crop farming decreased from 398.5 day/ha in 1980 to 130.25 day/ha in 2006; and shows a continuous decrease with a steep decline in 1980-1986, a slower decline in 1987-1996, and another steep decline in 1997-2006. On the contrary, capital intensity shows an increasing trend from 1980. In the internal composition of capital intensity, the proportion of seed, chemical fertilizer and pesticide input decreased from 90.36% to 73.44% ; the proportion of machinery increased from 9.64% to 26.56% . The less emphasis on yieldincreasing input and more emphasis on labor-saving input are the main reasons for a slow increase of yield per unit area after 1996. (2) On provincial scale, the economically developed areas have lower labor intensity and higher capital intensity. The less developed areas have higher labor intensity but lower capital intensity. From the internal composition of capital intensity view, labor-saving input accounts for more proportion in the developed areas than other areas. That is because in these developed areas, as more and more labors engaged in off-farm work, labor input has become a constraint factor in food production. Farmers increase the labor-saving input for higher labor productivity. However, in less developed areas, the major constraint is the shortage of capital; food production is still depending on labor and yield-increasing inputs.

Key words: labor intensity, capital intensity, labor-saving input, yield-increasing input, Chin