地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (4): 408-416.doi: 10.11821/xb200904003

• 城乡发展与旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于DEA 的中国特大城市资源效率及其变化

郭腾云, 徐勇, 王志强   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2008-10-22 修回日期:2009-02-20 出版日期:2009-04-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:郭腾云, 男, 副研究员, 博士, 主要从事产业、区域与城市发展和GIS 应用研究。E-mail: guoty@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635026); 国家自然科学基金项目(40671054)

The Analyses of Metropolitan Efficiencies and Their Changes in China Based on DEA and Malmquist Index Models

GUO Tengyun, XU Yong, WANG Zhiqiang   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2008-10-22 Revised:2009-02-20 Online:2009-04-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    Key Project of National Natural Sciences of China, No.40635026, National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40671054

摘要:

利用DEA、Malmquist 指数模型方法, 对1990-2006 年中国特大城市要素资源效率及其 变化进行了深入的研究。城市效率研究显示, 特大城市平均效率一般, 只有少数城市达到了 效率最优。进一步的分类研究发现: ① 东、中部地区特大城市综合效率一般要高于西部地 区, 呈现出与我国区域经济格局相似的特征;② 纯技术效率与城市规模成弱负相关关系, 即 城市规模越大, 城市纯技术效率越低;③ 城市规模与规模效率成一定的正相关关系, 即城市 规模越大, 规模效率越高。城市效率变化研究显示, 1990-2006 年特大城市效率呈现弱改善趋 势, 但技术退步和生产率下降明显。其中1990-2000 年全都呈上升趋势, 而2000-2006 年全都 呈下降趋势。进一步的分类研究显示: ① 城市综合效率和生产率变化趋势是, 东部沿海地区 有一定提高, 中西部地区下降, 其中, 西部地区下降最明显。② 不同规模城市的综合效率变 化表现为, 特大城市提高, 超大城市和巨型城市下降;③ 不同规模城市的生产率都呈现下降 趋势;④ 不同规模城市的规模效率都呈上升趋势, 存在随特大城市规模的增大, 城市规模效 率提高的趋势呈现递减的现象。

关键词: DEA 和Malmquist 方法, 特大城市, 城市效率, 变化趋势,

Abstract:

The factors resources efficiencies (including Technological Efficiency, TE; Pure Technological Efficiency, PTE; and Scale Efficiency, SE) of metropolises in China in 1990, 2000 and 2006, and their changing trends in China during the period 1990-2006 are investigated using DEA model and Malmquist index model, respectively. Firstly, the DEA model results show the efficiencies were not too high, with the characteristics of almost decreasing from Eastern Coastal China to Western China, and only few metropolises were in DEA efficiencies. Secondly, the results also show the PTEs were correlated with the urban population sizes of metropolises negatively, and the SEs correlated with the urban population sizes of metropolises positively in 1990, 2000, 2006, that is, with urban population sizes getting larger the corresponding PTEs were decreasing accordingly, and the SEs were increasing consequently. Thirdly, the Malmquist index results display the TE changing trends were increasing weakly, the technological changing trends were decreasing, and the total factor productivity changing trends are decreasing more apparently during 1990-2006, in which they were all increasing during the sub-period 1990-2000, and all decreasing during the sub-period 2000-2006. Fourthly, the Malmquist index results also demonstrate the TE changing trend was slightly increasing in Eastern Coastal China, while it was decreasing in Central China, and decreasing evidently in Western China. And with the increase of urban population size, the increasing trends of SEs became weaker and weaker. And the main reasons for the relatively low urban efficiencies and their changing trends, as well as a slight increase of total factor productivity changing trends mainly lie in the technological degeneracy and a significant decreasing trend in PTE during 2000-2006. Finally, the analyses also shed some highlights on the importance and significances to develop some metropolises with a proper size of population in China through implementing intensive factor resources utilization mode based on sustainable development concept.

Key words: DEA and Malmquist index methods, metropolis, factor resources efficiency, changing trend, Chin