地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (3): 357-367.doi: 10.11821/xb200903011

• 地貌演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

近20 年辽河三角洲地貌演化

朱龙海1,2, 吴建政1,2, 胡日军1,2, 徐永臣3, 王楠3   

  1. 1. 中国海洋大学海底科学与探测技术教育部重点实验室,青岛266100;
    2. 中国海洋大学海洋地球科学学院,青岛266100;
    3. 中国海洋大学工程勘察设计开发院,青岛266100
  • 收稿日期:2008-09-25 修回日期:2008-11-28 出版日期:2009-03-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 通讯作者: 吴建政(1956-),教授,研究方向为海洋地质与工程环境,E-mail: wjzqdhd@ouc.edu.cn E-mail:wjzqdhd@ouc.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:朱龙海(1979-),男,博士,研究方向为沉积动力地貌,E-mail: zhulonghai@163.com

Geomorphological Evolution of the Liaohe River Delta in Recent 20 Years

ZHU Longhai1,2, WU Jianzheng1,2, HU Rijun1,2, XU Yongchen3, WANG Nan3   

  1. 1. Key Lab of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Techniques,Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China;
    2. College of Marine Geo-Science,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China;
    3. Engineering Survey and Design & Development Institute,Qingdao 266100,China
  • Received:2008-09-25 Revised:2008-11-28 Online:2009-03-25 Published:2010-08-03

摘要:

运用钻探和浅地层探测等最新调查成果, 对近20 年的辽河三角洲潮流沉积进行了研 究。根据不同时期水深地形和卫星影像资料对比分析了现代辽河三角洲潮流地貌变化。现代辽河三角洲的沉积主体位于双台子河口。研究区10 m 深度内的地层主要包括: 潮滩相、潮 道相和浅海相沉积, 其下为古三角洲相。潮滩相沉积物以砂和粉砂为主, 分选中等, 跳跃和悬浮组分各占50%左右; 浅海相和潮道相沉积物主要为软弱的粘土质粉砂和粉砂质粘土, 以悬浮组分为主。全新世以来至1896 年, 研究区为古辽河、古大凌河和绕阳河之间的小海湾。 1896 年, 双台子河被人工开挖为分洪河道以来, 口门外形成盖州滩等潮滩, 并快速发育。 1958 年, 双台子河建闸后, 入海径流量和输沙量减小。目前, 双台子河口整体处于淤积状态, 潮滩面积不断增加, 整体向南、西、北3 个方向扩展。潮滩最大淤进速率为87~683 m/a, 平均淤积速率为0.189 m/a。潮滩东侧局部发生侵蚀, 平均侵蚀速率为0.122 m/a。潮道面积缩小, 具有向西、向北迁移的趋势, 最大迁移速率为48~200 m/a。双台子河口地貌发育受径流、海洋动力和人类活动的影响, 沉积物的主要来源由双台子河河流输沙演变为潮流和沿岸流输沙。

关键词: 辽河, 三角洲, 地貌

Abstract:

This paper firstly analyzes the geomorphological changes of the tidal deposition based on the bathymetric charts and Landsat data. Then it makes a full study of the evolution of the tidal deposition system in the past 20 years in the Liaohe River by drilling and shallow substrata data. The main tidal depositional body of modern Liaohe River delta is located in Shuangtaizihe River estuary. There are three sedimentary facies, including tidal bank facies, tidal channel facies and shallow sea facies. The sediments of tidal bank facies mainly consist of sand and silty sand. The sediment gradation is middle. The percentage of saltation load and suspension load is about 50% each in tidal bank facies. The sediment of tidal channel facies is composed of silty clay and clayey silt, which belongs to suspension load. The results reveal a net accretion trend in the Shuangtaizihe River estuary. The area of tidal bank is increasing and expanding towards south, west and north. The maximum expansion speed is 87 to 683 m/a. The mean depositional rate is 0.189 m/a. The average erosional rate is 0.122 m/a in some parts of tidal flat. It is filled with sediment in tidal channel, with a migration rate of 48-200 m/a. The geomorphological evolution is influenced by runoff, ocean power and human activity. The main source of sediment changes from river sediment to tidal current and littoral stream sediment.

Key words: Liaohe River, delta, geomorphology