地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (2): 189-201.doi: 10.11821/xb200902006

• 人口与城市 • 上一篇    下一篇

1949 年以来兰州城市资本密度空间变化及其机制

杨永春1, 伍俊辉1,2, 杨晓娟1, 侯利1, 李志勇1, 向发敏1   

  1. 1. 兰州大学资源环境学院, 西部环境教育部重点实验室, 兰州730000;
    2. 四川省城乡规划设计研究院, 成都610000
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-19 修回日期:2008-09-30 出版日期:2009-02-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:杨永春(1969-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员, 主要研究方向为城市与区域发展与规划, 现已发 表相关领域的文章50 余篇, 出版著作2 部。E-mail: yangych@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40771064); 教育部新世纪优秀人才计划和兰州大学引进人才基金

Spatial Variation and Its Mechanism of Lanzhou's Capital Density from 1949 to 2005

YANG Yong-chun1, WU Jun-hui1,2, YANG Xiao-juan1, HOU Li1, LI Zhi-yong1, XIANG Fa-min1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems, School of Resource and Environmental Science,Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Sichuan Institute of Urban Planning and Design, Chengdu 610000, China
  • Received:2008-01-19 Revised:2008-09-30 Online:2009-02-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Fundation of China, No.40771064; Project for Talented People of the Ministry of Education of China in the 21st Century; New Lanzhou University Foundation for Talents

摘要:

构建了计划经济体制和中国转型期城市资本密度空间分布理论模型, 并以兰州市为例进行了实证。利用高精度卫星影象和大规模实地调查方法获取数据, 采用GIS 手段和数理统 计方法, 利用建筑高度指标, 分区、分行业对兰州城市资本密度空间变化进行了深入研究。 同时, 采用资本存量增量(或增长率)/ 建成区面积增量(或增长率) 的指标衡量资本角度的城市紧凑化程度, 研究了城市紧凑化变动过程。结果表明: ① 中国计划经济体制下的城市资本空间密度为缓慢波动下降或均衡分布规律, 甚至出现上升趋势。转轨期(中国)城市资本空间 密度由中心到外围的相应规律则居于两者之间, 存在向市场经济空间模型靠近的趋势; ② 中国城市计划经济体制下的用地空间由中心到外围呈现商务→住宅→工业→农业的模式, 而转轨期依然基本保留了此特征; ③ 转轨期的建筑高度提高速度存在加速趋势, 住宅、商业、办 公等类建筑高度明显高于计划时期, 其空间分布模型也更接近市场经济体制模型; ④ 从资本视角审视, 中国城市将更加紧凑化, 且随时间的推移, 城市资本密度空间变化曲线大致存在较为明显的“雁行波动上升式” 规律。

关键词: 兰州市, 资本密度, 建筑容积率, 空间分布

Abstract:

We obtained data by using high-accuracy images and doing large-scale field surveys, and then analyzed indexes of building height by using GIS and mathematical methods to research into the variation of capital densities by districts and by callings in the city of Lanzhou. Moreover, we measured degree of city compactness by the ratio of increment of capital stock to increment of built-up area in the perspective of capital, and then research into the changing process of compact trend in Lanzhou. Results are drawn as follows: (1) Capital densities in cities decline notably from center to periphery under market economic system, however, those in Chinese cities decline slowly or are distributed evenly under planned economic system, even there are increasing trends. What's more, the mode of spatial distribution of capital density in Chinese cities during the transitional period is between these two foregoing modes and it is closer and closer to the mode in market economy. (2) Under planned economic system, land use in Chinese cities show a mode of commerce, residence, industry and agriculture from center to periphery, which is different from the mode of commerce, industry, residence, agriculture from center to periphery under market economic system. (3) It is hackneyed that high or low buildings are distributed in zones where most buildings are low or high, and this phenomenon is related to different development modes among units since the implementation of the reform and opening up started in 1978 and the factors such as market economic system cannot exert great impact on land exchange and land use transform. (4) Heights of residential, commercial and office buildings during transitional period are notably higher than those during planned economic period and the mode of spatial distribution is closer to the mode under market economic system, which is notably related to high degree of marketization. (5) In view of capital, if the phenomena of land use deflation and severe authorization policy do not change substantively, Chinese cities will be more and more compact. Moreover, as time passes by, spatial change curve of capital densities in Chinese cities shows a notable regulation of undulation raise like flying-geese, moreover, the increasing rate of building height is also in the speedup way.

Key words: Lanzhou, capital density, floor-area ratio of buildings, spatial distribution