地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (1): 59-68.doi: 10.11821/xb200901007

• 环境变迁 • 上一篇    下一篇

巢湖流域新石器至汉代古聚落变更与环境变迁

吴立1,2, 王心源1,2, 周昆叔3, 莫多闻4, 高超1,5, 刘丽1,2, 韩伟光1,2   

  1. 1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖241000;
    2. 中国科学院- 教育部- 国家文物局遥感考古联合实验室安徽遥感考古工作站,芜湖241000;
    3. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所,北京100029;
    4. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京100871;
    5. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京210008
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-29 修回日期:2008-10-31 出版日期:2009-01-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 通讯作者: 王心源(1964-), 男, 安徽六安人, 博士后, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事遥感环境考古、自然地理学方面的教 学与研究。E-mail: xinyuanw57@vip.sina.com E-mail:xinyuanw57@vip.sina.com
  • 作者简介:吴立(1985-),男,浙江海宁人,硕士研究生,主要从事环境考古与GIS 应用研究。E-mail: jedi-wuli@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571162);国家科技支撑计划重点项目课题(2006BAK21B02);国家重点基础研究发 展计划项目课题(2003CB415201)

The Transmutation of Ancient Settlements and Environmental Changes from the Neolithic Age to the Han Dynasty in the Chaohu Lake Basin

WU Li1,2, WANG Xinyuan1,2, ZHOU Kunshu3, MO Duowen4, GAO Chao1,5, LIU Li1,2, HAN Weiguang1,2   

  1. 1. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism,Anhui Normal University,Wuhu 241000,Anhui,China;
    2. Work Station of Anhui Province for Remote Sensing Archaeology,CAS, SME & SCRB Joint Laboratory of Remote Sensing Archaeology,Wuhu 241000,Anhui,China;
    3. Institute of Geology and Geophysics,CAS,Beijing 100029,China;
    4. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China;
    5. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology,CAS,Nanjing 210008,China
  • Received:2008-08-29 Revised:2008-10-31 Online:2009-01-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571162; National Science and Technology Support Program, No.2006BAK21B02;National Basic Research Program of China, No.2003CB415201

摘要:

以GIS 为手段, 在对巢湖流域新石器中晚期至汉代聚落遗址时空分布特征进行分析的基础上, 探讨流域内古聚落变更对环境变迁的响应关系。研究表明, 巢湖流域新石器中晚期至汉代古聚落变更的规律主要表现为, 随着时代推进聚落遗址从高海拔逐渐向低海拔地区转移并向湖泊靠近, 这种变更响应于中全新世以来流域气候由温暖湿润向温和干燥的发展, 以及由此导致的巢湖湖泊收缩、水位持续下降和生活范围扩展, 反映了在气候变化的大背景下, 地貌演化和水文条件的改变对古聚落变更的影响; 而各时期聚落遗址西多东少的分布格局, 则与流域东部极易受河道摆动和洪涝灾害影响的地貌条件有关。因此, 气候变化成为巢湖流 域古聚落变更的重要激发因子, 对古聚落的分布、扩展、演变都产生了重要影响, 古聚落变更对环境变迁的响应明显。

关键词: 巢湖流域, 新石器, 汉代, 古聚落变更, 气候变化

Abstract:

Based on the temporal-spatial distribution features of ancient settlement sites from the middle and late Neolithic Age to the Han Dynasty in the Chaohu Lake Basin of Anhui Province with the methods of GIS, combining with the reconstructed paleoenvironment by the records of lake sediment since Holocene in the Chaohu Lake, the transmutation of ancient settlements with responses to environmental changes in this area has been discussed. Study shows that the main feature of the transmutation of ancient settlements from the middle and late Neolithic Age to the Han Dynasty was that the distribution of settlements in this area changed from high altitude to the low one and kept approaching to the Chaohu Lake with the passage of times. These could be the response to the climate change from warm-moist to a relatively warm-dry condition during the middle Holocene, leading to the lake level fluctuations. The large area of exposed land provided enough space for human activities. These indicate that the above changes in geomorphologic evolution and hydrology influenced by climate conditions affected the transmutation of ancient settlements greatly. The distribution pattern of settlement sites was that the number of the sites in the west was more than the east. This pattern may be related to the geomorphologic conditions such as frequent channel shifting of the Yangtze River and flood disasters during the Holocene optimum. Therefore, the climate change is the inducement of the transmutation of ancient settlements in the Chaohu Lake Basin, which exerts great influence on the distribution, expansion and development of the ancient settlements, and the transmutation of ancient settlements responded to the environmental changes evidently.

Key words: Chaohu Lake Basin, Neolithic Age, Han dynasty, transmutation of ancient settlements, climate change