地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (11): 1218-1226.doi: 10.11821/xb200811011

• 地表过程 • 上一篇    

黄土高原作物产量及水土流失地形分异模拟

徐勇1, 杨波1, 刘国彬2, 刘普灵2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院水土保持研究所, 陕西杨陵712100
  • 收稿日期:2008-05-15 修回日期:2008-10-20 出版日期:2008-11-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:徐勇(1964-), 男, 陕西榆林人, 研究员, 博士。主要从事农业与农村发展、土地利用变化、人地关系与区域 可持续发展等领域研究。E-mail: xuy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新项目(KZCX2-XB2-05-01); 国家自然科学基金项目(40771086)

Topographic Differentiation Simulation of Crop Yield and Soil and Water Loss on the Loess Plateau

XU Yong1, YANG Bo1, LIU Guobin2, LIU Puling2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2008-05-15 Revised:2008-10-20 Online:2008-11-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZCX2-XB2-05-01; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40771086

摘要:

退耕坡地是近年来黄土高原整治生态环境和控制水土流失的有效措施。基于WIN_YIELD 软件, 以延安燕沟流域为例,利用2005 年延安站的逐日气象数据和燕沟流域地貌、土壤及土地利用等资料, 模拟分析了不同地形高程、坡度和坡向条件下不同作物产量及水土流失的分异特征。结果表明: 在黄土高原, 地形坡度是影响作物产量、径流和泥沙的重要因素, 地形高程和坡向的影响普遍较微弱; 地形坡度越大, 作物产量越低, 高粱和玉米在坡度为25o 时的产量模拟值分别较0o 时下降15.44%和14.32%, 大豆、绿豆和马铃薯的下降幅度依次为5.26%、4.67%和3.84%; 产生径流和泥沙随地形坡度的增大而增大, 在坡度20o左右存在一个高值区间; 不同作物的水土保持效益由高到低依次为大豆、绿豆(豆类)、马铃薯、玉米和高粱; 坡度小于5o的坡耕地可以不进行梯田改造, 坡度大于15o 的坡耕地应及早实现退耕还林还草。

关键词: 作物产量, 水土流失, 地形分异, 黄土高原

Abstract:

De-farming slope farmland has been an effective measure in recent years for the improvement of the eco-environment and the mitigation of soil and water loss on the Loess Plateau. This paper, taking the Yangou Basin as a case study and using day-by-day meteorological data of Yan'an station in 2005, simulated and analyzed the quantitative relation between crop yield, soil and water loss and topographic condition with the aid of WIN-YIELD software. Results show that: 1) Topographic gradient has important influence on crop yield. The bigger the gradient is, the lower the crop yield. Yields of sorghum and corn decrease by 15.44% and 14.32% respectively at 25o in comparison to the case of 0o. In addition, yields of soya, bean and potato decrease slightly by 5.26% , 4.67% and 3.84% , respectively. The influences of topographic height and slope aspect on crop yield are slight. 2) Under the same topographic condition, different crops' runoff and soil loss show obvious disparity. The benefit of soil and water conservation from high to low ranks soya, bean, potato, corn and sorghum. Topographic gradient has important influence on soil and water loss. In general, the changing trend is that the soil and water loss aggregates with the increase of gradient, and the maximal amount occurs around 20o. The influence of topographic height is slight. Topographic aspect has a certain effect, and the fundamental characteristic is that values are higher at the aspect of south than north. 3) Topographic gradients of 5o and 15o are two important thresholds. The characteristics about soil and water loss with the variation of topographic gradients show that: the slope farmland with gradients less than 5o could remain unchanged, and the slope farmland more than 15o should be de-farmed as early as possible.

Key words: crop yield, soil and water loss, topographic differentiation, Loess Plateau