地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (11): 1151-1159.doi: 10.11821/xb200811004

• 西部地理环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

近45 年青藏高原土壤温度的变化特征分析

张文纲,李述训,庞强强   

  1. 藏北高原冰冻圈特殊环境与灾害国家野外科学观测研究站, 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2008-06-26 修回日期:2008-09-25 出版日期:2008-11-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:张文纲(1977-), 男, 博士, 主要从事多年冻土与气候关系研究。E-mail: zhangwg@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40471026); 国家基金委“西部重大计划”面上项目(90302006); 中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(220014-03); 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973 计划) (2005CB422003)

Variation Characteristics of Soil Temperature over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in the Past 45 Years

ZHANG Wengang, LI Shuxun, PANG Qiangqiang   

  1. The National Field Station for Scientific Observation of Cryosphere Special Environment and Disaster over the North of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2008-06-26 Revised:2008-09-25 Online:2008-11-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 40471026; National Fund for "Western Major Plan" Broadly Item, No.90302006; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.220014-03; The National Basic Research Program (973 Program), No.2005CB422003

摘要:

利用青藏高原60 个气象站1960-2005 年的土壤温度观测资料, 采用Mann-Kendall 法和功率谱方法对不同深度土壤温度的时间变化进行趋势突变和周期检验, 并以主成分方法考察 其空间分布特征。分析结果发现青藏高原浅层土壤温度自1970 年以来升高趋势明显, 1969-1970 年为明显的突变点; 40~320 cm 的深层土壤温度存在3.25 年的显著周期变化; 浅 层土壤温度空间特征则主要体现为全区一致型和南北反向变化型。同时以浅层土壤温度梯度 (10~20 cm) 的变化特征讨论了青藏高原地气间能量的交换关系以及浅层土壤温度梯度对高原 多年冻土的响应, 认为高原地气温差和浅层土壤温度梯度之间存在一种涨落机制, 体现的是 高原地气间的耗散结构关系; 而浅层土壤温度梯度分布特征对高原多年冻土有明显的响应。

关键词: 青藏高原, 土壤温度, 温度梯度, 多年冻土

Abstract:

The soil temperature data of 60 meteorological stations on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau from 1960 to 2005 were used to analyze the time evolution tendency and spatial distribution using Mann-Kendall test, power spectral analysis and principal component analysis methods. The results show that the surface soil temperature of most of the stations on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau has a significantly increasing trend in the last 45 years, and the abrupt changes are detected from 1969 to 1970. The soil temperature at depths from 40 to 320 cm shows a 3.25a cycle variation, also the spatial features of surface soil temperature was mainly reflected as a coincident type in the whole region and a reverse changing type in north-south direction. At the same time discussion on the variation of surface soil temperature gradient (10 to 20 cm) indicated that there is a rise-fall mechanism between the surface soil temperature gradient and the difference between ground soil and air temperature, indicating that there may be a relationship of dissipative structures between the atmosphere and ground surface on the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the spatial pattern of surface soil temperature gradient reflects clearly the distribution of permafrost on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.

Key words: Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, soil temperature, soil temperature gradient, permafrost