地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (10): 1097-1107.doi: 10.11821/xb200810009

• 交通与物流 • 上一篇    下一篇

1990年以来东北地区铁路运输的空间极化

修春亮1, 赵映慧1,2, 宋伟3   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 长春130024;
    2. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院, 哈尔滨150030;
    3. 路易维尔大学地理与地球科学系, 路易维尔, 美国肯塔基州40292
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-11 修回日期:2008-07-19 出版日期:2008-10-25 发布日期:2008-10-25
  • 作者简介::修春亮(1964-), 吉林舒兰人, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要研究方向是城市地理、经济地理、城市与区域规划。 E-mail: xiucl@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571050)

Spatial Polarization of Railway Transport in Northeast China: 1990-2005

XIU Chunliang1, ZHAO Yinghui1,2, SONG Wei3   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China;
    2. School of Resource and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China;
    3. Department of Geography and Geosciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
  • Received:2008-01-11 Revised:2008-07-19 Online:2008-10-25 Published:2008-10-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571050

摘要:

以运输区段为研究单元, 以区段客流密度、货流密度、区段长度为原始数据, 将1990 年、1994 年、1999 年、2000 年和2005 年的东北地区铁路运输区段划分加以统一。首先运用 GIS 技术分析铁路运输密度变化的空间特征; 然后通过计算基尼系数、泰尔指数、集中指数 和崔王指数, 分析各年度铁路客货流分布的空间差异和极化程度;最后比较哈大线、沈山线 和滨洲-滨绥线等铁路干线的客货运周转量及比重变化。研究表明: ① 20 世纪90 年代铁路客流的空间极化比较明显, 2000 年以后极化趋势变缓或有所逆转; ② 货流在上行方向(向中部哈大线方向、向南部关内方向) 有趋于极化的特征; ③ 不管客流分布的总体特征向极化或分散方向如何变化, 哈大线在东北铁路网中的地位都在持续加强, 哈大线以外地区客流分布 趋向均衡。1990 年以来东北铁路运输分布的变化支持这样的区域空间极化过程: 向哈大沿线 集聚; 东北地区地域系统的层级减少, 哈大轴带作为顶层结构对整个东北地区的控制范围和程度增加。东北地区铁路网的整体性和区域一体化程度加深。

关键词: 铁路运输地理, 空间极化, 客流密度, 货流密度, 极化指数, 东北地区

Abstract:

The focus of this research is to examine the spatial polarization of railroad transport in Northeast China. Railroad sections which are consistent for the years of 1990, 1994, 1999, 2000 and 2005 were used as the basic spatial units of analysis, for each of which the length, and passenger and freight flow densities were collected. GIS techniques were first employed to analyze spatial characteristics in the change of railway passenger and freight flow densities. Disparities in the distribution of passenger and freight densities, as well as their degrees of spatial polarization were then evaluated with Gini Coefficient, Theil Index, H Index, and TW Index. Three railroad trunklines, Harbin-Dalian, Shenyang-Shanhaiguan, and Manzhouli- Harbin-Suifenhe, were also highlighted and examined in terms of the change in the absolute passenger and freight turnovers and relative shares. The research reveals that: (1) there is a strong spatial polarization for passenger flows in the 1990s, while the trend of polarization has been weakened and even somewhat reversed since 2000. (2) A trend toward polarization has been exhibited for freight flows in the upper bound direction (toward middle Harbin-Dalian Railway and south inner Shanhaiguan). (3) In the background of changing spatial distribution of both passenger and freight flows, the significance of Harbin-Dalian Railway has been greatly enhanced in the railroad network of Northeast China. Passenger flows outside Harbin-Dalian Railway are moving toward a more dispersed pattern. Changes in the distribution of railroad transport indicate that in Northeast China, regional polarization has been concentrated toward along Harbin-Dalian Railway. Regional system has become less hierarchical, with the spatial influence and control of Harbin-Dalian Railway at the top of the hierarchy greatly boosted. Meanwhile, the railroad network and the regional economy have become increasingly integrated.

Key words: railway transport geography, spatial polarization, passenger flow density, freight flow density, polarization index, Northeast China