地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (10): 1085-1096.doi: 10.11821/xb200810008

• 交通与物流 • 上一篇    下一篇

广州市过剩通勤的相关特征及其形成机制

刘望保1, 闫小培2, 方远平3, 曹小曙2   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院, 广州510631;
    2. 中山大学城市与区域研究中心, 广州510275;
    3. 华南师范大学旅游管理系, 广州510631
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-16 修回日期:2008-06-16 出版日期:2008-10-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 通讯作者: 闫小培(1956-), 女, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事信息产业与城市发展、城市内部空间结构研究。 E-mail:wbliu@scnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘望保(1975-), 男, 博士, 教师, 主要研究方向为城市社会地理。E-mail: wbliu@scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(40125003); 香港浸会大学基金项目(HKBU2080/99H)

Related Characteristics and Mechanisms for Excess Commuting in Guangzhou

LIU Wangbao1, YAN Xiaopei2, FANG Yuanping3, CAO Xiaoshu2   

  1. 1. College of Geography Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China;
    2. Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    3. Department of Tourism Management, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2008-01-16 Revised:2008-06-16 Online:2008-10-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, No.40125003; Fund of Hong Kong Baptist University, No.HKBU2080/ 99H]

摘要:

在不改变目前城市结构的前提下, 通过模拟居民的居住与就业区位的最优组合获取理论上的最小通勤, 过剩通勤是实际通勤成本与最小通勤成本之间的差值, 它反映了城市通勤效率和潜力。利用线性规划函数, 以广州市为例, 利用2001 年和2005 年家庭调查问卷数据, 计算两年的过剩通勤分别为58.41%和44.74%, 这部分通勤是可通过优化居住与就业的区位组合而理论上可节约的。过剩通勤与家庭社会经济特征有关, 尤其与家庭收入、户籍类型、 住房产权和类型等密切相关, 家庭结构分化和收入分化是产生过剩通勤的重要原因。除受模型假设产生的误差影响外, 过剩通勤的产生还受社会经济体制改革、城市规划与建设及个人 的居住与就业偏好等因素的影响; 住房、国企和土地等相关制度的改革导致城市居住与就业空间重组、城市规划较少关注小区域范围内居住与就业的平衡、个人的择居和择业偏好的变化, 这些因素相互影响、相互作用, 共同对过剩通勤的产生和扩大产生重要影响。

关键词: 过剩通勤, 线性规划, 居住与就业平衡, 广州市, 形成机制

Abstract:

Excess commuting which reflects the efficiency of urban commuting and the potential commuting which could be saved, means the disparity between actual commuting and minimum commuting calculated by simulating residential and workplace location choice without changing the urban structure. Linear programming optimization function is adopted to calculate excess commuting of all households and subgroups divided by household structure, housing types and job types of the head and so on. The analysis shows that about 58.41% and 44.74% of the commuting are excess in 2001 and 2005 respectively which could be saved through optimization reorganization of residential and workplace location, which means that the efficiency of commuting and spatial organization of residence and workplace in Guangzhou are very low. Excess commuting has strong relationship with socio-economic characteristics and housing types of households, especially with households' income, types of Hukou (registered residence of a household), housing tenure and types, and occupation of the head. The division of household structure and income are important factors for excess commuting. The simulation of the impacts of residential and employment suburbanization shows that both residential and employment suburbanization increases the minimum commuting. Besides the errors brought by the assumptions of minimum commuting calculation models, the socio-economic systems reform, urban planning and constructions and personal residential and employment preference have great impacts on excess commuting. The reformation of related systems including housing, state owned enterprise (SOE) and land since 1978 has led to spatial reorganization of residence and workplace location in large scale, urban planning policies pay little attention to regional job-housing balance, personal residential and employment preference has great changed, all those factors interacting mutually have major impact on the production and expansion of excess commuting.

Key words: excess commuting, linear programming function, jobs-housing balance, mechanisms, Guangzhou