地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (10): 1022-1032.doi: 10.11821/xb200810002

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

大连居民的城市宜居性评价

谌丽1,2, 张文忠1, 李业锦1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2008-02-20 修回日期:2008-07-12 出版日期:2008-10-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:张文忠(1966-), 男, 呼和浩特市人, 博士, 研究员。研究方向是城市和区域发展等。 E-mail: zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571048)

Urban Residential Suitability Evaluation of Dalian's Residents

CHEN Li1,2, ZHANG Wenzhong1, LI Yejin1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2008-02-20 Revised:2008-07-12 Online:2008-10-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571048

摘要:

以2006 年大连市大规模调查问卷为基础数据, 运用数理统计和GIS 分析手段, 从“居住安全性”、“生活方便性”、“居住舒适性”、“出行便利性” 和“环境健康性” 五大类指标出发, 首先, 对大连的城市宜居性的综合水平和各要素进行了评价; 其次, 研究了宜居性评 价结果与居民的收入、家庭构成、学历、年龄、性别等社会经济属性特征之间的相关关系;然后, 按照居民的四类社会属性, 利用聚类分析方法, 研究了大连工薪阶层、年轻白领、低收入阶层和年轻打工族等四类人群对城市宜居性的评价差异, 其中, 拥有高收入和高学历的工薪阶层和年轻白领对大连的宜居现状满意;低收入阶层和年轻打工族收入偏低, 居住区主要位于市郊和老工业区等, 对大连的宜居性评价较低。

关键词: 城市宜居性, 评价, 个人属性, 大连

Abstract:

In 1898, Howard put forward "garden city" as an introspection of the expense human paid for cities' vigorous development. One hundred years later, with the acceleration of urbanization China came the same problems. The deterioration of the living environment in cities is more and more common because of the agglomeration of population and industry in metropolitan areas. As a result, many scholars focus on the study of urban residential suitability, including the concept, content, influencing factors, as well as evaluation methods of it. There are usually three ways to appraise living environment, objective, subjective, and a combination of the two. This paper applies subjective method to have an overview of the suitability in Dalian. Choosing security, health, convenience, pleasure and facility as indexes, based on large-scale survey data of the residents' degree of satisfaction with the urban residential suitability in Dalian, this paper presents an empirical analysis of the residential problems in Dalian with the method of mathematical statistics and GIS analysis. The main content consists of the comparison of final score across each index, the study of relationship between attributes and evaluation result, and the comparison of both evaluation and spatial differences across social groups. Four conclusions are drawn as follows. (1) The average score of the five indexes shows that the urban residential suitability in Dalian is at a really fair level. Residents in Dalian are mostly satisfied with the traffic system, physical environment and daily facilities. However, they think there is a deficiency of community establishment. Meanwhile, the security of the city should be improved. (2) The attributes of residents would affect the evaluation result. According to analysis of correlation, the evaluation score is positively correlated to residents' income and education level, while is negatively correlated to family population. Age also counts for part of the final evaluation score. (3) Taking into account of these four attributes, residents in the city can be divided into four groups, which are working class, young white-collars, low-income local residents and young workers. People of different social groups show different evaluations of residential suitability. Working class and young white-collar people, who are wealthy and well-educated, are more satisfied with their living environment. Most of low-income local residents and young workers are living in suburban and old industrial districts, so their evaluation of urban residential suitability is lower. (4) The municipal government is obligated to take into consideration the need of all groups of people when dealing with urban residential suitability. At present, Dalian city has not met the need of the poor. For this reason, the governors should put more efforts on the equity of living environment, especially focus on the area where young workers and low-income residents live, such as Ganjinzi District and Jinzhou District.

Key words: living environment, urban residential suitability, evaluation, Dalian