地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (9): 969-980.doi: 10.11821/xb200809007

• 流域研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

近30 年来深圳河网变化及其生态效应分析

周洪建1,2, 史培军3,4,5, 王静爱1,2,3, 高路2, 郑憬5, 于德永6   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京100875;
    2. 北京师范大学区域地理研究实验室, 北京100875;
    3. 北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室, 北京100875;
    4. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京100875;
    5. 民政部/ 教育部减灾与应急管理研究院, 北京100875;
    6. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京100085
  • 收稿日期:2008-02-01 修回日期:2008-05-22 出版日期:2008-09-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:周洪建(1980-), 男, 博士生, 主要从事自然灾害与土地利用/ 覆盖变化研究。 E-mail:zhouhongjian_1980@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(40425008); 国家自然科学基金项目(40671003)

River Network Change and Its Ecological Effects in Shenzhen Region in Recent 30 Years

ZHOU Hongjian11,2, 23,4,5, SHI Peijun31,2,3, 42, 55, WANG Jing'ai16   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Environment Change and Natural Disaster, Ministry of Education of China/Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    4. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (Beijing Normal University), Beijing 100875, China;
    5. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs & Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875, China;
    6. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2008-02-01 Revised:2008-05-22 Online:2008-09-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Science Foundation of China for Distinguished Young Scholars, No.40425008; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40671003

摘要:

在地形图、河道普查数据、遥感影像等多源数据支持下, 分析了深圳近30 年河网的时空变化规律及其与城市化水平的关系, 在此基础上通过分析植被盖度、生产有机物质的价值、生态系统服务价值、生态资产等指标的变化规律探讨了深圳观澜河流域河网变化的生态效应。 结果表明: (1) 近30 年深圳市河网结构趋于简单化、主干化, 河流支流发展受到较大限制; 河网总长度减少355.4 km, 总条数减少378 条, 河网密度从0.84 km/km2 降低到0.65 km/km2; 以区/ 街道办驻地为圆心, 半径为1-2 km 的圆环区成为河网萎缩、河网消失的主要 区域; 依据流域城市化水平和河流主干是否直接入海等2 个指标可将深圳市9 大流域/ 水系 分为4 种不同的河网变化类型; (2) 当城市化水平低于30%时, 城镇用地扩展与河网萎缩, 尤其是河网支流的萎缩存在显著相关; 当城市化水平大于30%时, 城镇用地扩展对河网的影响较小; (3) 2000-2005 年观澜河流域生态系统功能显著降低, 以生产有机物质价值降低幅度最 大(41%), 植被盖度次之(24%), 单位面积生态资产从2.79 元/m2 降低到2.34 元/m2, 总生态 资产减少3136 万元; (4) 河网变化和城市化成为影响生态系统功能的主要因素, 其中河网变化因素和城市化因素对植被盖度降低的贡献率分别为23.1%和35.8%, 对生产有机物质价值减少的贡献率分别为25.1%和32.7%, 对生态系统服务价值减少的贡献率分别为7.7%和 56.2%, 对生态资产减少的贡献率分别为10.6%和52.2%。

关键词: 河网, 生态资产, 城市化, 遥感, 深圳

Abstract:

Based on the topographic map data (in the late of the 1960s and 1980s), rivers general investigation data (in 2003) and remote sensing data (MMS in 1980; TM in 1988, 2005) of Shenzhen region, the temporal and spatial changes of river networks and the relationship between river networks and urbanization ratio were analyzed. According to the above results, ecological effects of river networks change in Guanlan River basin, based on the four indicators of vegetation coverage (Vc), biological resources value (Br), ecosystem services value (Es) and ecological capital (Ec), were discussed. The results showed that: (1) the river network structure appeared as a trend from comprehension to simplicity, and the development of river branches were restricted strongly in recent 30 years. The length was shortened by 355.4 km, and the number of rivers reduced 378, while the drainage density decreased from 0.84 km/km2 to 0.65 km/km2. The major area, where the river networks decreased or disappeared, is located in the circle area with the town as the center and the radius of 1-2 km. There were 4 different types of change characteristics of river networks in all 9 drainages of Shenzhen according to urbanization ratio in the main drainage and whether or not it flows into sea directly. (2) There was significant correlation between urban expansion and river networks reduction, especially with river branches decreasing when the urban land ratio was less than 30% ; while it was above 30% , the effects became weak. (3) The ecological functions of Guanlan River basin became weaker remarkably, of which Br decreased most (about 41%), Vc was second (24%). The ecological capital per unit area decreased from 22.79 million yuan/km2 to 2.34 million yuan/km2, while total capital reduced 3136 million yuan in 2000-2005. (4) Changing river networks and urbanization were the main reasons for the degradation of ecological functions, and they had different contribution ratios for decline of the four indexes, of which they were respectively 23.1% and 35.8% for Vc, 25.1% and 32.7% for Br, 7.7% and 56.2% for Es, and 10.6% and 52.2% for Ec. The paper provided an empirical case to recover river networks in the last several periods, and a quantitative expression of river networks change.

Key words: river network, ecological capital, urbanization, remote sensing, Shenzhen