地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (8): 856-868.doi: 10.11821/xb200808007

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于农户土地利用行为的北京大兴区耕地质量评价

孔祥斌, 刘灵伟, 秦静   

  1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院土地资源管理系, 北京100193
  • 收稿日期:2007-10-18 修回日期:2008-05-28 出版日期:2008-08-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:孔祥斌(1969-), 男, 河北省承德市人, 博士, 副教授。主要研究方向是土地资源可持续利用和土地资源评价。 E-mail:kxb@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(70573111); 国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAD05B03-6)

Arable Land Evaluation Based on the Household Land Use Behavior in Daxing District of Beijing

KONG Xiangbin, LIU Lingw ei, QIN Jing   

  1. Dept.of Land Resource Science,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100094,China
  • Received:2007-10-18 Revised:2008-05-28 Online:2008-08-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.70573111; The National Key Technology R&D Program, No. 2006BAD05B03-6

摘要:

基于农户土地利用行为变化的相关理论, 创建了基于农户土地利用行为的“压力—状态—效应—响应”的耕地质量变化框架模型, 构建了基于农户土地利用行为的“耕地质量评 价指标体系”。以北京市大兴区为研究样区, 通过农户调查和土壤化验分析, 获得大兴区1982 年、2000 和2006 年的农户土地利用和土壤肥力变化数据。依据构建的耕地质量评价指 标体系, 对三个时期的压力、状态、效应和响应指标进行了研究。结果表明: 1982 年到2006 年, 耕地压力指数由63.19 增加到73.57, 又减少到67.85, 而方差从13.92 增加到41.12, 到 2006 年高达58.59, 同时耕地压力指数空间变异性增加; 耕地状态指数从56.52 增加到76.46, 最后达到81.20, 状态指数方差从58.39 增加到111.42, 2006 年达到209.45, 空间变异性增 加; 耕地效应指数从42.39 增大到64.34, 2006 年与2000 年基本持平, 而耕地效应指数方差 和空间变异性增加。1982 年家庭联产责任制刚刚开始, 农户耕地投入差异不明显; 1982-2000 年家庭联产承包责任制的深入, 农户耕地利用差异性增加, 国家的农业基础设施投入也显著提高, 是耕地效应指数整体增加和空间变异性增大的原因; 2000-2006 年农户的土地利用目标转型, 土地投入差异进一步扩大, 导致耕地质量提高幅度降低, 耕地质量的空间差异性进一步增强。为了促进耕地质量整体提高, 需要进行土地产权机制创新, 以促进土地投入水平的整体均衡增加。

关键词: 农户, 土地利用行为, 耕地质量, 评价, 北京大兴区

Abstract:

Due to the large food need, arable land quality is very im portant in China, so how to evaluate its quality has been studied by many researchers. How ever, different regions of China are at different stages of development with different land use objectives. The first is yield maximization stage, and the household land use objective is to m eet fam ily food consum ption needs. The second is yield and profit optim ization stage, and the household land use objective is to m ake m ore profits on the basis of m eeting basic fam ily needs. The third is profit m axim ization stage, and profit is the only land use objective for the household. B ased on the theory of different developm ent stages and land use objectives, a "Pressure-Status-Effect-R esponse" m odel w as developed in this paper to evaluate arable land quality at household level. The arable land quality index system evaluation w as constructed according to the fram e of "PSER " and Daxing District of Beijing was taken as a case study area. The household questionnaire survey and soil survey w ere done to get the data about change of household land use and soil fertility. The indicator of Pressure, Status, Effect and R esponse w as studied based on the arable land index system . The result show ed that the arable land Pressure indicator increased from 63.19 in 1982 to 73.57 in 2000,and decreased from 73.57 in 2000 to 67.85 in 2006, the variance of arable land Pressure indicator increased from 13.92 in 1982 to 41.12 in 2000, and up to 58.59 in 2006; the Status indicator of arable land increased from 56.82 in 1982 to 76.46 in 2000 and up to 81.20 in 20006, the variance of arable land status indicator increased from 58.39 in 1982 to 111.42 in 2000 and up to 209.45 in 2006; the indicator of arable land effects increased from 42.39 in 1982 to 64.34 in 2000, but it w as stable in 2006.The arable land indicator change from 1982 to 2000 and 2006 show ed that the arable land quality w as affected by the governm ent policy, the governm ent introduced "the household responsibility system " policy to increase the household input level, due to the poor arable land quality before 1982; w ith the introduction of the household responsibility system , the arable land quality increased from 1982 to 2000, but the arable land quality variance increased because of the household land input difference; the arable land quality kept stable from 2000 to 2006, but arable land quality variance increased quickly. The new governm ent policy of the household land scale m ust be introduced to increase the arable land quality as general.

Key words: household behavior, arable land quality, land evaluation, Daxing District of Beijing