地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (8): 829-844.doi: 10.11821/xb200808005

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

转型期北京社会空间分异重构

冯健, 周一星   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2007-12-15 修回日期:2008-05-27 出版日期:2008-08-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:冯健(1975-), 男, 副教授, 博士。主要从事城市地理研究, 在中英文刊物上发表学术论文60 篇, 出版专著4 部。E-mail: fengjian@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40501023)

Restructuring of Socio- spatial Differentiation in Beijing in the Transition Period

FENG Jian, ZHOU Yixing   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China
  • Received:2007-12-15 Revised:2008-05-27 Online:2008-08-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40501023

摘要:

利用分街区人口普查数据, 分析1982-2000 年北京都市区社会空间分异特征, 通过计算信息熵、绝对分异指数、相对分异指数和隔离指数等指标, 探讨转型期北京社会空间分异 的重构特征。研究表明: “街区尺度”是展现都市区社会空间分异特征具有可操作性的空间尺度; 北京各类居住人口、就业人口以及住房状态都存在明显的空间分异特征; 除了老年人口、性别比、户均人数和农业就业人口等少数指标以外, 1982-2000 年北京绝大部分社会指标 的空间分异程度在下降; 同期, 外来人口、各少数民族人口、高学历人口以及二产、三产就业人口等与总人口分布格局的一致性在变好, 而老年人口、文盲人口以及与农业相关的人口 逐渐偏离与总人口分布格局的一致性。18 年间城市人口的混居性普遍增强, 但老年人口、外来人口和农业人口却表现出相对于其他人口混居性变弱而群居性增强的特征。北京社会空间分异重构特征还可以从各社会指标与距离关系的演变中获得直观认识。在中国大城市转型期 间, “规模重构”和“空间效应”交互作用, 构成社会空间分异重构的外在表现, 其基础动力主要来自于制度、市场和文化的变迁。

关键词: 空间分异, 社会空间, 城市空间结构, 北京都市区, 街区尺度

Abstract:

B ased on the data at the level of sub-district of the third population census in 1982 and the fifth one in 2000, the authors try to analyze the characteristics of socio-spatial differentiation in B eijing M etropolitan A rea and calculate several indices, including the inform ation entropy, the absolute differentiation index and the relative one, and the index of residential segregation, to indicate the features of the restructuring of socio-spatial differentiation in B eijing M etropolitan A rea.The authors prove that the scale of sub-districts is still an im portant spatial unit for studying urban socio-spatial structure in China w ith enough maneuverability. The analysis of the 2000 census data show s both the pattern of socio-spatial differentiation of each kind of residential population, including density of residential population,m igrant population,fam ily size,old people,population of each kind of educational level,and the minorities,and that of the em ploym ent and housing status under the background of suburbanization and the transition of urban econom y in Beijing M etropolitan Area. The authors find out that the degree of socio-spatial differentiation of Beijing Metropolitan Area in most social indices decreased in the period 1982-2000, except for several indices including the old, sex ratio, family size and the farm ers on the basis of the absolute differentiation m odel. In the sam e period, on the basis of the relative differentiation m odel, they find out that the spatial distribution of m igrant population,the m inorities,population w ith higher education level, and the em ploym ent population of the secondary and the tertiary industries tend to accord w ith the spatial pattern of total urban population, w hile the old, the illiterate and the farm ers do not. From 1982 to 2000, the residential m ixture of m ost dem ographic indices tend to be increasing, w hile that of the old, the m igrants and the farm ers does not.G enerally speaking,the change of the inform ation entropy indicates that urban social spatial structure tend to be m ore com plex w ith m ore and m ore heterogeneity, w hich accords w ith the findings of sim ilar research on the basis of the analysis of B eijing's social areas.M ost im portant of all,by contrast,the analysis by differentiation m odels show us m ore details about urban socio-spatial differentiation and its restructuring, w hich can also be indicated from the restructuring of the relationship betw een the socio-spatial differentiation and the distance from the city center. Finally, the authors put forw ard a theoretical fram ew ork based on the evolution of system , m arket and culture in order to explain the restructuring of socio-spatial differentiation of Beijing Metropolitan Area in the transition period.

Key words: socio-spatial differentiation, social space, urban spatial structure, the level of sub-district, Beijing Metropolitan Area