地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (8): 799-806.doi: 10.11821/xb200808002

• 区域产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国农村居民收入区域差异变化的因子解析

刘慧   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2007-09-27 修回日期:2008-05-14 出版日期:2008-08-25 发布日期:2008-08-25
  • 作者简介:刘慧(1964-), 女, 副研究员。主要从事中国区域发展问题研究。E-mail: liuh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    科技部科技基础条件平台建设计划地球系统科学共享网(2005DKA32300); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCW2-YW-322)

Factor Decomposition of Rural Regional Income Inequality Changes in China

LIU Hui   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2007-09-27 Revised:2008-05-14 Online:2008-08-25 Published:2008-08-25
  • Supported by:

    R&D Infrastructure and Facility Development Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology (Data-sharing Network of Earth System Science), No.2005DKA32300; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCW2-YW-322

摘要:

在GINI 系数因子分解的基础上, 提出了测度区域差异变化影响因子贡献来源的分解方法, 将影响因子对区域差异变化的贡献分解为因子的结构性贡献和集中性贡献两种类型。对1993-2005 年中国农村居民区域收入差异因子分解的实证研究表明工资性收入是影响农村收入差距格局最重要的因素, 但对农村收入差距变化的影响并不明显。相反, 近年来工资性收入集中度的不断下降超过了结构性增加对区域差异扩大的贡献, 二者共同作用促进了农村区域差异的缩小。家庭经营性收入仍然是农村居民最重要的收入来源, 但对收入差距的影响越来 越小, 且结构性和集中性对区域差异的贡献都在下降。财产性收入和转移性收入对收入差距格局的贡献虽然不大, 但对收入差异扩大的贡献不断增加, 已成为影响农村区域差异变化的重要因素。财产性收入贡献的增加主要来源于结构性贡献, 集中性变化影响的趋势并不明显, 而转移性收入贡献的增加除结构性增加影响之外, 集中性下降的影响同样显著。最后提出了相应的政策建议。

关键词: 农村区域差异, 因子分解, 政策, 中国

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the changes of rural regional income inequality and attem pts to decompose them into different com ponent factors based on Giniindex. A new method is proposed to decompose the influence of each factor on inequality changes into its structure effects and its real inequality effects. In order to explore the factors behind the changes in rural incom e inequality in China, the overall rural income inequality is decom posed into contributions by different incom e sources: w ages, household operations, properties, and transfers. This analysis is only for the period of 1993-2005 due to a serious data difference before 1993. A pplication of the m ethod to C hina's rural regional inequality in the period 1993-2005 reveals that household operations still represents the dom inant source of rural incom e although its influence on rural inequality is decreasing. In recent years, w ith the decline of household operation concentration index and its percentage share, it had positive effects in reducing the total regional inequality. A lthough w age incom e only accounts for som e 26% -40% of the total disposable incom e, its contribution to the overall incom e inequality ranges from 43% to 50% . This im plies that the w age incom e played the m ost im portant role in China's rural regional incom e inequality. How ever, for the changes of rural inequality, the contribution percentage of the wage component did not display any upward trend although its absolute share in the total income increased straightly. There is no strong evidence to show that wage incom e enlarge rural regional incom e inequality. O n contrast, regional concentration in w age incom e did help reduce total regional incom e inequality since the m id-1990s. The contribution of w ages incom e in raising regional inequality m ainly com es from incom e share increase. These increases are a direct consequence of developm ent process of urbanization and industrialization. In the future, as long as the concentration decline effects continue to exceed the share increase effect, w age m ust contain positive effects in reducing overall incom e inequality. Thus, to prom ote industrialization and urbanization in less developed areas and encourage farm ers to gain m ore w ages from local enterprises and outgoing em ploym ent w ould be one of the im portant approaches in reducing rural regional inequality. In recent five years, the role played by properties and transfers in rural incom e inequality increased fast and steadily. H ow ever, these tw o com ponents have different influence m anner. The increasing contribution from properties is m ainly due to the increase of its share. A s to the transfer incom e influence, the increase of its share enlarged rural incom e inequality, but the evident decline of its concentration reduced regional inequality. Therefore, m ore financial transfer and social services from the central governm ent to less developed areas w ould be m ore and m ore effective in tackling rural regional inequality in C hina.

Key words: rural inequality, decom position, policy, China