地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (3): 293-300.doi: 10.11821/xb200803007

• 地貌与第四纪 • 上一篇    下一篇

浙江上山遗址剖面记录中更新世以来的环境演变

毛龙江1, 莫多闻1, 蒋乐平2, 贾耀锋3, 李明霖1, 周昆叔4, 史辰羲1   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京100871;
    2. 浙江省文物考古研究所, 杭州310014;
    3. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院, 西安710062;
    4. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所, 北京100029
  • 收稿日期:2007-10-25 修回日期:2008-11-27 出版日期:2008-03-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:毛龙江(1976-), 男, 湖南涟源人, 博士后, 主要从事环境演变与环境考古、海岸海洋科学等方面的研究。 E-mail: mlj1214@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划(2003CB415201); 国家科技支撑计划项目课题(2006BAK21B02)

Environmental Change since Mid- Pleistocene Recorded in Shangshan Achaeological Site in Zhejiang

MAO Longjiang1, MO Duowen1, JIANG Leping2, JIA Yaofeng3, LI Minglin1, ZHOU Kunshu4, SHI Chenxi1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Hangzhou 310014, China;
    3. Department of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China;
    4. Institute of Geology and Geophysics, CAS, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2007-10-25 Revised:2008-11-27 Online:2008-03-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Basic Research Program of China, No.2003CB415201; National Science and Technology Support Program, No.2006BAK21B02

摘要:

通过对上山文化遗址的野外勘察、野外采样和室内粒度、磁化率、释光年代(OSL) 和 AMS14C 年代分析, 探讨了上山地区地貌演变过程, 分析了上山文化形成与发展的环境背景。 研究结果表明, 中更新世早期, 上山地区为河流相砾石层堆积, 中更新世晚期173 ka BP 左 右, 由于气候和海面变化及其新构造运动的影响, 形成了河流的二级阶地。而后阶地上接受 风尘堆积, 形成了中更新世晚期的网纹红土。晚更新世, 粉尘堆积加速, 堆积了厚约1 m 的 下蜀黄土。全新世(11.5 ka BP-) 开始, 气候转暖, 粉尘堆积速率降低, 上山台地上保存有命 名为“上山文化”的新石器遗址, 其年代为11400~8600 a BP, 遗址中发掘出大量陶器和石器 工具, 并发现有栽培水稻遗存, 这是迄今为止长江下游地区发现的最早新石器遗址, 是探索 该地区农业起源和新石器文化演化具有重要意义的地点。上山台地西侧低地经历了河流相— 湖沼相—河流相—湖沼相的地貌过程, 并且AMS14C 年代表明, 西侧水源消亡于距今1000 多 年, 而台地东侧仍有河流流过, 表明上山遗址所处地貌位置为靠近河湖水源的河流阶地之上 覆有风成黄土的低平台地。

关键词: 环境演变, 网纹红土, 释光断代, 中更新世, 上山文化, 浙江

Abstract:

According to field investigations and sampling as well as laboratory analysis of magnetic susceptibility, grain size, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS 14C dating of archaeological site profile of Shangshan in Pujiang area, Zhejiang, this paper revealed the process of environmental change since Mid-Pleistocene and discussed the background of Shangshan cultural development. The results show there were fluvial gravel sediments in Shangshan area in the earlier period of Mid-Pleistocene. But at about 173 ka BP of the late period of Mid-Pleistocene, uplift happened in Shangshan area because of the impact of the climate, sea level change and neotectonic action, movement, thus forming the second terrace of the river. Between 173-75 ka BP, the terrace received aeolian sediment, a layer of reticulate laterite about 80-100 cm thick deposited, and developed under a relatively high temperature. A layer of  Xiashu Loess about 1.0-1.5 m thick deposited on Shangshan terrace in late glacial, containing 80% of the loessal dust. At the beginning of the Holocene (11500 a BP-), temperature went higher gradually with more precipitation, the pre-historic human moved on the Shangshan terrace (11400-8600 a BP), which may connect the paleolithic culture and Neolithic culture. The lower place to the west of the Shangshan Site has been the two cycles process of the fluvial facies, lake and moor facies, indicating that the water source of the Shangshan pre-history is the river water or lake water. Moreover, two AMS 14C ages indicated the water resource disappeared more than 1000 years at most.

Key words: environmental change, reticulate red clay, TL/OSL dating, Mid-Pleistocene, Shangshan Culture, Zhejiang