地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (2): 207-218.doi: 10.11821/xb200802010

• 人口地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

广州小北路黑人聚居区社会空间分析

李志刚1, 薛德升1, Michael Lyons2, Alison Brown3   

  1. 1. 中山大学城市与区域研究中心, 广州510275;
    2. 伦敦南岸大学艺术与人文科学系;
    3. 卡迪夫大学城市与区域规划学院
  • 收稿日期:2007-06-10 修回日期:2007-12-10 出版日期:2008-02-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:李志刚(1976-), 男, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会青年工作委员会副主任委员, 主要研究方向是城市社会地 理与城市规划。E-mail: lizhig@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40601033, 40771066, 50608033); 广东省自然科学基金项目(06300105); 中山大 学" 百人计划" 项目(3171310); 教育部留学回国人员科研启动基金项目

The African Enclave of Guangzhou: A Case Study of Xiaobeilu

LI Zhigang1, XUE Desheng1, Michael Lyons2, Alison Brown3   

  1. 1. Center of Urban and Regonal Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. South Bank University, London, UK;
    3. Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK
  • Received:2007-06-10 Revised:2007-12-10 Online:2008-02-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40601033, No.40771066, No.50608033; Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong, No.06300105; Sun Yat-sen University 100 Scholars Foundation, No.3171310; Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, Ministry of Education of P.R. China

摘要:

1978 年改革开放带来中国城市的快速转型。近年来, 针对经济转型背景下中国大城市 的社会空间研究很多, 但对在全球化影响下出现的跨国移民族裔聚居区的研究尚不多见。对 广州黑人聚居区展开研究, 以越秀区小北路为例, 探讨其社会空间特征与演进机制。研究采 用微观视角, 针对典型案例进行问卷调查和半结构式访谈。研究表明, 广州黑人聚居区与西 方同类族裔社会区存在诸多差异。小北路黑人聚居区因全球化下新的“自下而上”的跨国经 济联系而生, 因广州城市的商贸文化、宗教历史、贸易网络和地理气候条件而兴, 其跨国移 民多为来自西非地区的族裔散居者/ 漂泊者(Diaspora), 其人口构成异质多元, 且流动性强。 小北路的社会空间机制既包含被动隔离也包含主动聚居, 其经济形态已经开始向“族裔聚居 区经济”(ethnic enclave economy) 发展。

关键词: 黑人聚居区, 社会空间, 广州小北路

Abstract:

Market reform and economic restructuring is reshaping the cities in mainland China. In the last two decades, a spate of studies have examined the transformation of urban social space under the perspective of socioeconomic transition, few lights, however, are shed on the implication of globalization upon urban China. Though the literature of transnationalism has extensively examined ethnic enclaves of Western cities especially the US, little is known about globalizing Chinese cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. This paper takes efforts to examine the newly appeared ethnic enclaves of African traders in Guangzhou, using Xiaobeilu as a study area. It mainly targets on the sociospatial feature as well as the underlying mechanism. The booming of Guangzhou's exporting economy is examined, followed by a general description of ethnic enclaves of transmigrants in Guangzhou. Five enclaves are identified, Sanyuanli, Huanshidong, Tianhebei, Ersha island, and Panyu, while the former two sites, Sanyuanli and Huanshidong, are becoming enclaves of African traders. As such, Xiaobeilu, one part of Huangshidong, is chosen to conduct in-depth studies. Under a microscopic lens, both questionnaires and half-structured interviews are used in the survey of 2006-2007. Though this study will use intensive interviews as the main method, questionnaires target on both Black and Chinese residents of Xiaobeilu are also used, and 45 questionnaires of African Traders have been collected, along with around 43 questionnaires of local residents. Importantly, a total of 46 semi-structured interviews have been successfully conducted, so that abundant qualitative information can be put into use. First, it is argued that Guangzhou's Black ethnic enclave is by no means the same as that of the West. Though the development of the enclave is largely an outcome of 'globalization from below', it is also heavily shaped by the national and local forces. Transnational migrants have been attracted to China as early as 1980, most African traders, however, came to Guangzhou after the door of China opened further in the late 1990s. Located in PRD (Pearl River Delta), one of the world factories of China, Guangzhou enjoys advantaged status in terms of goods export, annual fairs, accommodation, and so on. Moreover, the restructuring of Xiaobeilu is interacting with localities such as Guangzhou's entrepreneurial history and culture. It is found that most transnational migrants of Xiaobeilu come from West Africa and they work as merchants, either floating or fixed, to collect products, such as shoes, clothes and electronic facilities. Africans of Xiaobeilu can be grouped into two types: salesmen and tradesmen, the former is featured by regular mobility of crossing borders, whilst the latter, as Diasporas, has developed social networks to trade between China and Africa. Accordingly, Xiaobeilu is becoming a social field featured by ethnic enclave economy, within which the residents are featured by both high mobility and diversity. Nevertheless, African traders of Xiaobeilu suffer a high possibility of residential segregation. As such, globalization adds Chinese cities such as Guangzhou a new dimension of sociospatial segregation, ethnicity.

Key words: African enclave, social space, Guangzhou, Xiaobeilu