地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (2): 195-206.doi: 10.11821/xb200802009

• 人口地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

1947- 2000 年上海中心城区居住空间结构演变

廖邦固1, 徐建刚1, 宣国富2, 祁毅1, 梅安新3   

  1. 1. 南京大学城市与区域规划系, 南京210093;
    2. 东南大学旅游学系, 南京210096;
    3. 华东师范大学地理信息科学教育部重点实验室, 上海200062
  • 收稿日期:2007-04-25 修回日期:2007-10-28 出版日期:2008-02-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:廖邦固(1980-), 男, 博士生, 主要从事GIS 与城市空间结构研究。E-mail: liaomap@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40371038)

Evolution of Residential Space Structure in Shanghai Central City Based on Land Use

LIAO Banggu1, XU Jiangang1, XUAN Guofu2, QI Yi1, MEI Anxin3   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Department of Tourism, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China;
    3. Key Lab. of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2007-04-25 Revised:2007-10-28 Online:2008-02-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40371038

摘要:

基于1947-2000 年9 个时相的上海土地利用遥感调查GIS 数据集, 从土地利用层面对 50 多年来上海中心城区居住空间结构演变进行实证研究。首先分析居住用地扩展与构成的数 量变化特征, 然后采用地理形态分析法划分各时期居住区类型, 并分别从街区与城市两个尺 度对居住区演变进行分析: 在街区尺度下, 以聚类特征表研究居住区的类型变化以及内部土 地利用构成变化; 在城市区域尺度下, 分析不同时期居住区的空间格局变化以及工业用地、 市政商服用地对居住区空间格局演进的影响。研究发现上海中心城区居住空间结构由简单的 组团加圈层结构向复杂的扇形、圈层和组团综合模式演变。其中以1988 年土地有偿使用制度 改革为界, 前期以外围住宅新村圈层扩展与和内部居住区不断被非居住用地侵入形成用地混 合居住区为特征, 后期以外围商品住宅指状扩展和内部旧城更新相结合为特征。

关键词: 居住空间结构, 土地利用, 聚类分析, 居住区, 上海

Abstract:

Urban residential space structure is the cross-over research field between urban geography and urban sociology. Limited by the historical housing data or census data, the research on evolution of residential space structure also remains at the level of textual description or qualitative interpretation. This paper empirically examines the evolution of residential space structure in Shanghai central city based on multi-temporal land use data (1947-2000). Geographic-Pattern-Analysis based on cluster analysis is used to identify residential area. We calculate the area ratio shared in the neighborhood among four sorts of residential land, rural land, industrial land, commercial and municipal services facilities land by using neighborhood as spatial statistics module. Then we cluster the outcome and get the GIS data of classification residential areas, analyze it to find the laws of transformation of residential space structure in Shanghai central city. The discussions are addressed in two spatial dimensions (street blocks vs. city). On the scale of street blocks, the characteristics of cluster analysis outcomes are analyzed to show the evolution of residential area categories and the element of land use. On the scale of the whole city, the distribution of various residential areas and its changing trend are analyzed to examine the process of evolution of residential space structure from 1947 to 2000. Three conclusions are drawn. (1) Residential land expanded rapidly in the 1950s and 1990s, slowly from the 1960s to 1970s. Dominant housing transforms from the traditional one (lane house and slum) to the latest type. (2) The diversity of residential area category undergoes from simple to complicated, then from complicated to simple. Land use in residential area also undergoes from uniform to farraginous, then from farraginous to uniform. Both paths are attributed to the industrial land and commercial and municipal services facilities land in terms of the "invasion" and "retreat" from residential area on street block scale. (3) The model of residential space structure has transformed from circle mixed with group model in 1947 to single center mixed with circle model in the 1970s-1980s, then to circle mixed with sector and group model in 2000. The land-leasing system reform impacted residential space structure much after 1988, resulting in the restructure of residential space: the latest type of house replaced old house in the central city, and CBD began to take shape.

Key words: residential space structure, land use, clustering analysis, residential area, Shanghai