地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (2): 147-155.doi: 10.11821/xb200802004

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

河南农区经济发展差异地理影响的小尺度分析

李小建1,3, 周雄飞2, 郑纯辉1   

  1. 1. 河南财经学院资源与环境学系, 郑州450002;
    2. 河南财经学院经济学系, 郑州450002;
    3. 河南大学环境与规划学院, 开封475001
  • 收稿日期:2007-09-18 修回日期:2007-12-10 出版日期:2008-02-25 发布日期:2008-02-25
  • 作者简介:李小建(1954-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员, 主要研究方向为经济地理学。 E-mail: xjli@henu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40535025); 河南省社会科学重大项目(2005-36)

Geography and Economic Development in Rural China: A Township Level Study in Henan Province, China

LI Xiaojian1,3, ZHOU Xiongfei2, ZHENG Chunhui1   

  1. 1. Department of Resources and Environmental Studies, Henan University of Finance and Economics, Zhengzhou 450002, China;
    2. Department of Economics, Henan University of Finance and Economics, Zhengzhou 450002, China;
    3. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
  • Received:2007-09-18 Revised:2007-12-10 Online:2008-02-25 Published:2008-02-25
  • Supported by:

    Key project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40535025; Key project of Henan Social Science, No.2005-36]

摘要:

对中国第一农业大省河南的乡镇数据分析表明, 地理因素对农区经济发展具重要影响。 在较低经济发展水平的乡镇, 地形和农业资源条件具有显著的影响; 而在相对较高经济发展 水平的乡镇, 地理位置以及与此相伴生的基础设施条件的影响更为显著。模型分析表明, 地 形显著影响乡镇的人均收入, 而且随着收入的增加, 其影响程度递减。人均土地面积显著影 响非农产业发展水平较低的乡镇的人均收入。对非农产业比重低于20%的乡镇, 人均土地每 增加1 hm2, 人均收入就增加约96 元。地理位置影响着相关农区经济的发展, 尤其是对收入 较高的农区的影响十分明显。全省高收入乡镇的70%集中在河南中部地区, 正好与中原城市 群的空间范围相吻合。就单个乡镇而论, 离县城的距离显著影响高收入乡镇的人均收入。地 理因素对欠发达农区经济发展影响处于变动之中。随着经济水平的提高, 传统地理因素(如 地形、农业资源因素等) 的影响逐渐被对经济积聚有明显影响的地理临近性等要素的影响所 取代。因此, 不能简单的认为地理因素对经济发展的影响在下降。

关键词: 地理因素, 农区发展, 乡镇分析, 河南

Abstract:

Existing literature on rural regional development in China has paid little attention to the studies in small geographical scales. This study uses the data on 1736 township level administrative areas from an interior province of Henan, the largest and less developed agricultural province in China, to examine how geography plays the role in determining economic development in rural areas. The result indicates that geography still plays a significant role in rural development. Landform and other agricultural resources significantly affect economic development in the areas at the lower stage of growth, while the geographical location shows more significant impact in the areas with the relatively high income level. Quantitative analysis further reveals that the landform of a township village affects its income at a high significance level; the significance will reduce as the income in the village increases. Arable land per capita contributes significantly to the income in the villages with weak non-agricultural industries. For the villages with less than 20% of non-agricultural industries in its total economies, an increase in one hectare of arable land per capita will add 97 yuan to per capita income. In terms of geographic location, however, the impact is significant in the high income villages. Over 70% of the township villages in the high income group are concentrated in the central region of Henan province, where the nine major cities of the province are located. For an individual township village in the high income group, it is found that the distance from its county seat significantly explains its income level. An increase of one kilometer from the county seat will generate a decrease of 8 yuan in average income per capita. The study further concludes that the role of geographical factors is changing over time. Along with the economic development, the geographical proximity replaces the traditional geographical factors such as landform and physical resources as the major determining factors in regional development. Based on the results, the study argues that how geography matters in the era of rapid technological changes and globalization may differ in different regions and different industries. Evidence from the rural industries in the less developed China does lend support to important role of geography played in regional economic development. Therefore, rural geography in China may choose different focuses from the Western economies. The implications for regional policies from this study may enhance an area-specified strategy for rural development.

Key words: geography and rural development, township studies, Henan, rural central China