地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (1): 3-11.doi: 10.11821/xb200801001

• 土地利用 •    下一篇

湘江中下游农田土壤和蔬菜的重金属污染

郭朝晖1, 肖细元2, 陈同斌2, 廖晓勇2, 宋杰1, 武斌2   

  1. 1. 中南大学冶金科学与工程学院环境工程研究所, 长沙410083;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2007-06-25 修回日期:2007-10-23 出版日期:2008-01-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 陈同斌, 研究员,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员. E-mail: chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:郭朝晖(1971-), 男, 副教授, 主要从事土壤污染化学、环境生物技术与矿冶生态环境工程研究。 E-mail: zhguo@mail.csu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(40325003); 国家自然科学基金项目(20507022)

Heavy Metal Pollution of Soils and Vegetables from Midstream and Downstream of Xiangjiang River

GUO Zhaohui1, XIAO Xiyuan2, CHEN Tongbin2, LIAO Xiaoyong2, SONG Jie1, WU Bin2   

  1. 1. Institute of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Hunan 410083, China;
    2. Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2007-06-25 Revised:2007-10-23 Online:2008-01-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    The National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars, No.40325003; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.20507022

摘要:

从湖南省湘江中下游衡阳—长沙段沿岸采集219 个农田土壤样品和48 个蔬菜样品, 测 试其中As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn 等7 种重金属元素的含量, 并结合GIS 作图与数据统 计, 对农田土壤中重金属空间分布、土壤和蔬菜中重金属富集特征以及其潜在风险进行分析。 结果表明, 农田土壤中As、Cd、Cu、Ni、Pb 和Zn 含量均大于湖南省相应土壤重金属含量背 景值, Cd (2.44 mg kg-1)、Pb (65.00 mg kg-1)、Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) 含量分别超标7.97、3.69 和 1.63 倍。与我国《土壤环境质量标准》(GB15618-1995) 中II 级标准(pH 6.5~7.5) 比较, 土壤 As、Cd、Cu、Ni、Pb 和Zn 含量的超标率分别为13.2%、68.5%、2.7%、2.7%、8.7%和 15.1%, 表现为以Cd 为主的多种重金属混合污染。菜地土壤中As、Cd、Cu、Pb 和Zn 的含 量( 几何均值) 分别高于水稻土As、Cd、Cu、Pb 和Zn 含量。与《食品中污染物限量》 (GB2762-2005) 等标准比较, 蔬菜As、Cd、Ni、Pb 含量的样本超标率分别为95.8%、68.8%、 10.4%和95.8%; 蔬菜Cd、Pb、Zn 含量与相应土壤的Cd、Pb、Zn 含量存在极显著的相关性 (P < 0.01)。湘江中下游的农田土壤和蔬菜中重金属污染的潜在风险值得关注。

关键词: 湘江中下游, 农田土壤, 蔬菜, 重金属, 污染

Abstract:

A total of 219 of agricultural soil and 48 of vegetable samples were collected from the midstream and downstream, Hengyang to Changsha, of Xiangjiang River of Hunan Province. The spatial distribution, accumulation characteristics and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted in details by three different approaches, including total contents of 7 metal elements in soils and vegetables, GIS map of heavy metals in soils, and multi-analysis of the relationship between metals content of soils and egetables in this study. The results show that there are higher accumulations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils, and the contents of Cd (2.44 mg kg-1), Pb (65.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) are 7.97, 3.69 and 1.63 times of background contents of the corresponding heavy metals in soils of Hunan Province, respectively. There are about 13.2% of As, 68.5% of Cd, 2.7% of Cu, 2.7% of Ni, 8.7% of Pb and 15.1% of Zn in all the collected soil samples from the investigated sites which have overran the contents for heavy metal of China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade II). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly reflected by Cd. Contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are significantly higher than those in paddy soils, respectively. The ratios of vegetable samples which As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations are higher than the Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods (GB2762-2005) are 95.8%, 68.8%, 10.4% and 95.8%, respectively. There are significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetables and the content of them in vegetable soils (P < 0.01). It is very necessary to focus on potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human's health in agricultural soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province of China.

Key words: the midstream and downstream of Xiangjiang River, agricultural soil, vegetable, heavy metal, pollution