地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (12): 1235-1243.doi: 10.11821/xb200712012

• 区域产业发展 •    下一篇

中国地区银行业金融系统的区域差异

武巍1,2, 刘卫东1, 刘毅1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2007-05-18 修回日期:2007-08-08 出版日期:2007-12-25 发布日期:2007-12-25
  • 作者简介:武巍(1980-), 女, 吉林人, 博士生, 主要研究方向为金融地理和区域发展。E-mail: wuw.03s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX3-SW-353)

Regional Differences of Local Banking Systems in China

WU Wei1,2, LIU Weidong1, LIU Yi1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2007-05-18 Revised:2007-08-08 Online:2007-12-25 Published:2007-12-25
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Programme Key Project of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-353

摘要:

随着中国国金融服务业不断深入改革以及对外资金融机构的逐渐开放,金融服务业的空间格局更为复杂。以银行业为例,区域内服务地域范围不同的银行金融机构的组合已经引起人们的重视,这种组合就构成了地区金融系统(地区银行系统)。地区金融系统内的银行金 融机构可以划分为包括国有商业银行、政策性银行、全国性股份制商业银行、外资银行等的外来型银行金融机构,以及包括城市商业银行(城市信用社) 、农村信用社(农村合作银行) 等的本地型银行金融机构。研究表明:地区金融系统存在着萌芽期、发展期以及成熟期三个发展阶段,不同阶段具有明显的特点。地区金融系统受到地区经济发展水平、产业结构、地方政策以及地区金融素养等因素影响。采用定性和定量相结合的方法,利用中国30 个省市 (自治区) 的数据,分析了中国各地区金融系统的区域差异。在各地区金融系统中,外来型银行金融机构表现为:国有银行的分支机构处于相对主导的地位;外资银行集中于重要结点; 全国性股份制商业银行区域性集中趋势明显;对于本地型银行金融机构则具有城市商业银行分布不均;农村信用社填充国有银行撤出地区空白,但实际发挥的作用有限等特点。

关键词: 地区金融系统, 银行, 管制, 区域差异, 影响要素, 中国

Abstract:

In the case of banking, this paper defines local financial sys tems as thos e financial ins titutions which s erve different spatial ranges located in an adminis trative region. We divide these banking ins titutions into two types : the exogenous ins titutions and the endogenous ins titutions . The exogenous ins titutions are national s tate-owned banks , and the endogenous ins titutions are local banks . The former ones contain the s tate-owned commercial banks , the policy banks , the national joint shareholding commercial banks ; and the latter ones include the city commercial banks and the rural credit cooperatives . With the two types combined, local financial sys tems experience three s tages : The firs t one is the budding s tage . In this s tage , the exogenous ins titutions dominate the financial s ervices in a region; the endogenous ins titutions jus t begin their financial affairs . The s econd one is the developing s tage . Local financial sys tems have the dynamic changes in this s tage . On one hand, sys tems become more attractive for the exogenous ins titutions and make the endogenous ins titutions grow up fast; on the other hand, sys tems develop so s low that the exogenous ins titutions choos e to leave the region. The third one is the mature s tage , the endogenous ins titutions develop to the exogenous ins titutions , and sys tems change to financial centers . Based on the data from the s tatis tics of the Central Bank, this paper analys es the spatial differences among provinces . The result shows that the eas tern part plays an es s ential role in both the ins titution numbers and the as s ets ; local financial sys tems in this part are in the mature s tage . While the middle and wes tern parts have a small portion compared with the eas tern, the sys tems in thes e areas are in the budding and s low developing s tage . In local financial sys tems , the branches of s tate-owned banks dominate local financial sys tems ; the foreign banks concentrate on important city nodes ; the national joint shareholding commercial banks centralize in certain areas ; the city commercial banks are unevenly dis tributed; and the rural credit cooperatives have little contribution to local economy.

Key words: local banking systems, banking, regulation, spatial differences, China