地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (12): 1287-1298.doi: 10.11821/xb200712005

• 旅游与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

全新世中期西辽河流域聚落选址与环境解读

韩茂莉1, 刘宵泉1, 方晨2, 张一1, 李青淼1, 赵玉蕙   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京100871;
    2. 北京大学地球与空间学院,北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-12 修回日期:2007-07-02 出版日期:2007-12-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:作者简介:韩茂莉(1955-), 女, 教授, 博士, 中国地理学会会员。主要从事中国历史地理研究。 E-mail: maolih@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40471031)

The Explanation of the Selection of Settlement and Environment in the Western Liaohe River Valley during the Middle Holocene Epoch

HAN Maoli1, LIU Xiaoquan1, FANG Chen2, ZHANG Yi1, LI Qingmiao1, ZHAO Yuhui   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences of Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. School of Geoscience and Space Science of Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2007-03-12 Revised:2007-07-02 Online:2007-12-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40471031

摘要:

通过x2 检验等方式提出,全新世中期西辽河流域聚落对海拔400~500 m 高程区域选择倾向十分明显,在这一高程内又偏重于距河床10~40 m 的坡地,兴隆洼、赵宝沟以及红山文化期这一特征最突出,夏家店下层文化期聚落位置表现出以400~500 m 高程区为核心向高、低两个方位发展。针对上述聚落环境选择特征指出:① 根据人类生存方式可将西辽河流域划 出林地与草地两大地带,两者的交界处即400~500 m 高程区域内以坡地为主的林缘地带,兴隆洼、赵宝沟文化期人类的采集、渔猎活动主要集中在这里,随着红山、夏家店下层文化期 原始农业的发展,聚落选址从原来的林缘地带向草地甚至林地扩展,前后不同考古文化期的 聚落位置界定了自然环境的空间属性与地域差异。② 西辽河流域受地带性环境因素制约,即使在全新世大暖期林缘地带的动植物资源也并不丰富,仅能满足人口密度极低的兴隆洼、赵宝沟文化期人类获取食物的需求,红山文化以后随着人口增殖原始农业逐渐发展起来。③ 全新世中期西辽河流域聚落密度很低,人口规模在这一地区的环境容量之下,农业开发尚未对西辽河流域带来明显的环境扰动。

关键词: 全新世中期, 西辽河流域, 聚落, 环境

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the environmental explanation of the selection of settlement sites belonging to different types of archaeological culture in the middle Holocene Epoch, Western Liaohe River Valley. Through Chi-square Test, the authors point out that the settlements in the target region were mainly distributed in the sloping field of 400-500 m above sea level and the distribution presents spatial and temporal changes. The settlements in 8000-6000 a BP concentrated on the sloping field of 400-500 m above sea level. The settlements in 6000-3000 a BP were extending from the core area of 400-500 m above sea level to the higher and lower directions. While showing the preference of the height of 400-500 m above sea level, the settlements in the Western Liaohe River Valley in the middle Holocene Epoch demonstrated a horizontal amassment in the sloping field 10-40 m away from the riverbed. From the environmental explanation of the selection of settlement sites belonging to different types of archaeological culture, the paper gets three main findings: 1) the Western Liaohe River Valley could be divided into two parts, the woodland and the grassland, according to the style of living of the people. The periphery of the woodland is the living space of the people 8000-6000 a BP, when gathering, fishing and hunting were the main life style. The grassland is the main distribution area of primitive agriculture. 6000-3000 a BP is the vital period for the development of primitive agriculture, during which the settlements had a trend expanding from the periphery of woodland to the grassland. The sequence of the settlement sites defines the spatial and regional features of environment. 2) Though the Holocene Epoch experienced a prominent warming period, the animal and vegetation resources were far from abundant, restricted by the zonality constraints of the Western Liaohe River Valley. The living resources reserves could only afford the living of the people in 8000-6000 a BP when the population density was very low. In 6000-3000 a BP, the growth of population had exceeded the environmental capacity of this area. To fulfill the survival requirement, primitive agriculture was developing gradually and new man-land relationship was established. 3) Using thickness of the cultural sediments to analyze the continuance of the settlements in the middle Holocene Epoch, the paper points out that the population density then was much sparser than modern times. Considering the environmental capacity and population density, agriculture cultivation in the middle Holocene Epoch did not cause significant environmental disturbance.

Key words: middle Holocene Epoch, the Western Liaohe River Valley, settlement, environment