地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (9): 946-958.doi: 10.11821/xb200709006

• 青藏高原气候 • 上一篇    下一篇

近44 年来青藏高原夏季降水的时空分布特征

卢鹤立1,2, 邵全琴1, 刘纪远1, 王军邦1, 陈卓奇1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2007-06-27 修回日期:2007-08-03 出版日期:2007-09-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:卢鹤立(1971-), 男, 博士研究生, 主要从事生态信息研究。Email: luhl@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院西部行动计划项目“三江源区生态—生产功能区的区划及其评估研究” (KZCX2-XB2-06-03)

Temporo-spatial Distribution of Summer Precipitation over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the Last 44 Years

LU Heli1,2, SHAO Quanqin1, LIU Jiyuan1, WANG Junbang1, CHEN Zhuoqi1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2007-06-27 Revised:2007-08-03 Online:2007-09-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    CAS action-plan for West Development, KZCX2-XB2-06-03

摘要:

利用1961-2004 年青藏高原97 个站点的夏季逐日降水数据,通过累积距平、相关分析、回归分析、经验正交函数分解、功率谱方法等,结合GIS 的空间分析功能,分析了夏季 降水的时空分布特征。结果表明:在青藏高原年降水量比较少的地区,夏季降水占全年降水的比例较高,夏季降水与全年降水的相关性也较强;夏季降水相对变率最大的地区位于青藏 高原西北的最干旱地区,最小的地区是三江源区;夏季降水趋势增加和减少的站点分别为54 个和43 个,通过较显著检验的站点占总数的18.6%;在2000m 以下的站点中,海拔和夏季降水气候倾向率存在较强的正相关,相关度达0. 604 (显著性0.01);1961-1983 年和1984-2004 年两个时间段相比,除了3000~3500m 海拔范围外,其余海拔范围夏季降水气候倾向率都表现为增加;夏季降水可大致分为三种类型场:高原东南部类型场、高原东北部类型场和三江 源类型场,高原东南部类型场和高原东北部类型场表现出南北变化相反的降水特点,分界线大致沿着35oN 线;在90%的置信概率下,三种类型场分别表现出5.33 年、21.33 年和2.17 年的潜在周期;4500 m 以上海拔范围的站点夏季降水周期通过很显著检验(α = 0.01),站点海拔和降水周期存在-0.626 的高相关度;在三江源地区,3500 m 以上的站点夏季降水周期随海拔升高而减小,3500 m 以下的夏季降水周期随海拔高度升高而增加。

关键词: 青藏高原, 夏季降水, 气候倾向率, 降水类型, 降水周期

Abstract:

The summer day-by-day precipitation data of 97 meteorological sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1961 to 2004 were selected to analyse the temporo-spatial distribution using accumulated variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis, empirical orthogonal function, power spectrum function and spatial analysis tools of GIS. The result showed that summer precipitation occupied a relatively high proportion in the area with less annual precipitation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the correlation between summer precipitation and annual precipitation was strong. The altitude of these stations or points and summer precipitation slope presented stronger positive correlation below 2000 m, with correlation value up to 0.604 and significance of 0.01. Summer precipitation slopes disparity between the periods 1961-1983 and 1984-2004 at five altitude scopes (2000-2500 m, 2500-3000 m, 3500-4000 m, 4000-4500 m and above 4500 m) were above zero and accounted for 71.4% of the total. Using empirical orthogonal function, summer precipitation could be roughly divided into three precipitation pattern fields: the southeast Plateau pattern field, the northeast Plateau pattern field and the Three Rivers' Headstream Regions pattern field. The former two presented a reverse spatial distribution value from the north to the south and the reversal line is along 35oN. The potential cycles of the three pattern fields were 5.33a, 21.33a and 2.17a respectively, tested by the confidence probability of 90%.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, summer precipitation, precipitation slope, precipitation pattern, precipitation cycle