地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (9): 917-924.doi: 10.11821/xb200709003

• 水资源安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

近20年我国饮用水污染事故分析及防治对策

李丽娟1, 梁丽乔1,2, 刘昌明1, 张丽1,2, 姜德娟1,2, 李九一1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2007-07-06 修回日期:2007-08-09 出版日期:2007-09-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:李丽娟, 女, 吉林市人, 博士, 研究员, 博导。主要从事水资源与水环境研究。E-mail: lilj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571029); 中国科学院重大咨询项目资助

Analysis and Strategy of Dr inking Water Pollution Accidents in Recent 20 Year s in China

LI Lijuan1, LIANG Liqiao1,2, 1, LIU Changming1,2, ZHANG Li1,2, 1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2007-07-06 Revised:2007-08-09 Online:2007-09-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571029; The Key Consultation Project of CAS

摘要:

饮用水安全问题是我国面临的突出环境问题,它直接关系到人民群众的生命和健康。 通过检索相关文献资料,查阅到我国1986-2005 年发生的152 起饮用水污染事故,从事故的特点、原因和危害3 个方面进行了分析。从时间上看,1995-2005 年是饮用水污染事故的高发期,集中了87.5%的事故;从区域上看,华东地区是事故高发区,共44 起。污染类型以生物污染为主,占69.1%,远远高于化学污染的比例。从事故发生地点看,接近一半的事故发生在居民区,其次是学校。供水环节中,以水源污染为主,占56.6%。生活污染是导致饮用水污染的主要因素,占65.1%,其次是工业污染。水源污染是事故发生的主要原因。饮用水污染事故严重影响了居民正常饮水,甚至引发水性疾病的暴发流行或污染物中毒。为实现我国饮用水安全,提出了预防和处理饮用水污染事故的相应防治对策。

关键词: 饮用水, 污染事故, 对策, 中国

Abstract:

Drinking water safety is a prominent environmental issue facing China since it is related to human health directly. Based on the statistical data from articles, the characteristics and causes of the drinking water pollution accidents and their damage to the human society are analyzed. About 152 typical drinking water pollution accidents which happened in China during the period 1986-2005 were analyzed in this study. The results show that 133 accidents, about 87.5% of the total, occurred during the period 1995-2005, and East China is the area with high frequency where 44 accidents occurred. All pollution accidents are chemical or/and biological, and biological pollution accidents account for 69.1%. As viewed from pollution places, almost half of the accidents occurred in residential areas, next in schools. As viewed from water supply links, pollution of water source is the main reason for accidents which accounts for 56.6% of the total. As viewed from pollution type, pollution from daily life is the main reason which resulted in 65.1% of the total accidents, and then industrial pollution. Drinking water pollution accidents have badly affected residents' normal drinkable water, even led to water-borne diseases breaking out or poisoning. In order to actualize safe drinking water, corresponding strategy is brought forward for defending and treating drinking water pollution accidents.

Key words: drinking water, pollution accidents, strategy, China