地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (9): 907-916.doi: 10.11821/xb200709002

• 水资源安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国农村饮水安全问题探讨与对策

戴向前1,3, 刘昌明1,2, 李丽娟1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 北京师范大学水科学研究院,北京100875;
    3. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2007-07-02 修回日期:2007-08-08 出版日期:2007-09-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:戴向前(1977-), 男, 博士生, 主要从事水文水资源、水与生态方面研究。E-mail: daixq@m165.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院学部2005 年咨询项目

Discussion and Countermeasur es on Safe Drinking Water in the Rural Areas of China

DAI Xiangqian1,3, 1,2, LIU Changming1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2007-07-02 Revised:2007-08-08 Online:2007-09-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2005

摘要:

根据《我国饮水安全与北方缺水地区农业水资源高效利用战略研究》及《全国农村饮水安全现状调查评估》中的调查资料,统计分析了我国农村饮水不安全人口总体分布特征及 不同类型的空间分布特点。按照中部、东部和西部划分,饮水不安全人口在数量上中部多东部少,中部为1.4 亿人,东部为0.7 亿人;在饮水不安全人口占农村总人口比例上,西部多东部少,西部为40%,东部为27%。饮用高氟、苦咸水、污染地表水、污染地下水以及水量缺乏等不同类型的饮水不安全人口分布特点各不相同,高氟水主要在华北地区,在天津饮用高 氟水人口占不安全人口的70%;饮用污染地表水主要分布在淮河以南、青海西藏以东大部分区域。进一步分析讨论了不同饮水安全问题(高氟、高砷、污染水、水量缺乏等) 的成因及影响农村饮水安全的主要因素,最后提出严格防治点源污染、面源污染,加强水源地保护,加 强雨水集蓄利用以及制定应急机制和预案等一系列解决农村饮水安全问题、保障饮水安全的 对策和措施。

关键词: 农村饮水安全, 水质超标, 中国

Abstract:

This paper analyzed the spatial distribution characteristic of rural residents with unsafe drinking water in China, which was resulted from several factors including natural water quality with excessive drinking water standard, polluted water, water shortage and low insurance probability. Results show that water quality with excessive drinking water standard, including naturally unqualified water quality and man-made pollution, is the biggest problem, and the unsafe population accounts for 70% of the total unsafe population, however, there is a difference of extent in the eastern, central and western parts of China, being 78%, 76% and 58% respectively. The remaining unsafe population is due to deficient water quantity, low insurance probability and inconvenient water taking. The ratio of total unsafe rural population to total rural population in the western, central and eastern parts of China is respectively 40%, 35% and 27%. According to these, we inferred the problems' trait of safe drinking water in different areas. Furthermore, we analyzed the causes which form high-fluorin water, the high-arsenic water and bitter and salty water, and discussed the main factors which influence safe drinking water.

Key words: safe drinking water, water quality with excessive standard, China