地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (8): 849-860.doi: 10.11821/xb200708007

• 产业发展与城市化 • 上一篇    下一篇

快速城市化进程中的区域剥夺行为与调控路径

方创琳, 刘海燕   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2007-01-09 修回日期:2007-07-02 出版日期:2007-08-25 发布日期:2007-08-25
  • 作者简介:方创琳(1966-), 男, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师。近年来主要从事城市与区域规划等方面的研究。 E-mail: fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40335049); 国家自然科学基金项目(40471059)

The Spatial Pr ivation and the Cor r esponding Controlling Paths in China' s Urbanization Process

FANG Chuanglin, LIU Haiyan   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2007-01-09 Revised:2007-07-02 Online:2007-08-25 Published:2007-08-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40335049; No.40471059

摘要:

伴随我国工业化进程和城市化进程的不断加快, 中国已进入快速城市化发展时期, 快速城市化进程中衍生出了一系列区域剥夺行为, 这种行为主要是指强势群体和强势区域基于区域与区域之间的空间位置关系, 借助政策空洞和行政强制手段掠夺弱势群体和弱势区域的资源、资金、技术、人才、项目、政策偏好、生态、环境容量, 转嫁各种污染等的一系列不公平、非合理的经济社会活动行为; 这些区域剥夺行为具有强制性、垄断性、层次性、等级性和貌似合理性等基本特征; 区域剥夺的内容包括对土地、水、资源、生态环境容量、资金、人才、技术、劳动力、重大建设项目甚至政策等的剥夺; 政策空洞与调控失控形成的剥夺惯性, 利益驱动形成的剥夺动力和弱势群体透支形成的剥夺温床是产生区域剥夺行为的主要成因; 剥夺的后果表现为空间开发失调、资源配置失衡、政策调控能力受限甚至失效以及和谐社会建设步伐延缓。最后从意识形态、政策制定、制度建设、空间扩散和和谐发展等五大方面提出了中国快速城市化进程中消减区域剥夺行为的路径选择。

关键词: 城市化, 区域剥夺, 弱势群体, 和谐社会, 调控路径, 中国

Abstract:

China has stridden forward rapid urbanization with the industrialization and urbanization, and the regional privation has derived from urbanization. This regional privation, which is based on a type of the location each other in the geographical space, policy absence, and some compelling executive means, is that the advantaged group and region act on the disadvantaged group and region from regional resource, financing, technology, talents, projects, policy preference, ecology, environment capacity, pollution with imputed, and it is a series of unjust and unreasonable economic and social actions. Concretely, this privation actions embodied in big city vs. small city, city cluster vs. metropolis, urban vs. suburban, suburban vs. rural, development zone vs. farmer and farmland, universities town construction vs. farmland, real estate exploitation and village rebuilding in city vs. farmer and urbanites, developed region vs. developing region, the region with rich resources vs. the region of lack resource, employer vs. off-farm worker and their spirit deprivation because of regional discrimination. Sarcastically, the privation possesses the characteristics of compellability, monopoly and hierarchy, and seeming-rationality. It focuses on land, water, resource, eco-environment, capital, talents, labor, financing, technology, important constructing projects, etc. Inanition and out-control of policy form inertia of privation, profit drive results in motivation of privation, overdraft of the disadvantaged group leads to seedbed of privation, and these are the main reasons for the formation of privation. The results of privation are spatial maladjustment, resources unbalanced conglomeration, out-control of policy, invalidation about rule, unbalance in regional and social development, breaking faith with people, and these will result in a bigger and bigger gap between the rich and the poor. Finally, based on ideology, policy, system, spatial diffusion and harmonious development, the author brings out some corresponding controlling paths that hammer at eliminating regional privation in China's urbanization process, including respecting the developing rights of the disadvantaged group and let them see the brightness; establishing the preferential policy universally aiming at the backward region and the disadvantaged group; forming a kind of back-feed mechanism, namely, "supporting the advantaged and caring for the disadvantaged, establishing fairness and harmony". Synchronously, the author thinks that it should also estimate the bad and good polarization impartiality, and push a kind of balanced developing pattern, so that China can construct a harmonious society and stride to the road of fine urbanization. The last but not the least, the article brings out the existing regional privation action and reason firstly about China's urbanization road and this will provide a scientific basis for decision-making on China's urbanization road.

Key words: urbanization, regional privation, the disadvantaged group, harmonious society, corresponding controlling paths, China