地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (8): 809-820.doi: 10.11821/xb200708003

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国港口分布格局的演化与发展机理

王成金   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2006-12-08 修回日期:2007-03-29 出版日期:2007-08-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:王成金(1975-), 男, 汉, 山东沂水人, 博士后, 主要从事交通地理研究。 E-mail: cjwang@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635026); 中国博士后基金资助项目(2005038112)

Evolution and Developing Mechanism of Por t Distr ibution System in China

WANG Chengjin   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2006-12-08 Revised:2007-03-29 Online:2007-08-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.406355026; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No.2005038112

摘要:

长时间序列的港口分布格局的演化规律, 一直是国内外交通地理学有待解决的问题, 而考察港口体系的长期演变规律, 有助于对目前港口体系发展阶段的判断, 并为未来优化提供科学支撑。基于国内外港口体系研究现状的评述, 本文从内河和沿海两个方面, 对秦汉时期以来中国港口分布格局的发展过程与空间特征进行系统解析, 认为存在秦汉至南北朝、隋唐至南宋、元朝至明中叶、明中叶至鸦片战争、鸦片战争至1949 年和1949 年至今等六个阶段, 各阶段呈现不同的分布特征。并且, 本文从产业布局、政治经济空间关系、大宗物资运 输、国际贸易、外来势力和现代交通等多角度出发, 深入分析了中国港口分布格局演化的基本机理。同时, 本文从空间格局演化轨迹、首要港口变迁、驱动机制、港口体系开放性、港口区位和发展阶段等角度, 系统总结了中国港口分布格局的基本发展规律。

关键词: 中国, 港口分布格局, 历史演化, 发展机理

Abstract:

Port system is an important research field of transportation geography, and its distribution system is very important. But the research of evolution course over a long period has been scarce at home and abroad and needs to be strengthened, so study on this topic can contribute to the identification of the developing stage of port system and provide scientific basis for its future optimization. In this paper, based on expounding on research history of port systems in foreign countries and China, the author discussed the developing course of port system in China since the Qin and Han dynasties, and analyzed their spatial feature in detail, including port system and main ports, from the river ports to the seaports system. According to the present study, the author identified six developing stages with different spatial distribution characteristics: (1) from the Qin and Han dynasties to the Northern and Southern Dynasties; (2) from the Sui and Tang dynasties to the Song Dynasty; (3) from the Yuan Dynasty to the middle period of the Ming Dynasty; (4) from the middle period of the Ming Dynasty to the Sino-British Opium War; (5) from the Sino-British Opium War to the year 1949; and (6) since the year 1949. The research about developing mechanism of port system from historical point of view is always the important and key contents of port study. So, the author analyzed the developing and evolution mechanism of port distribution system in China from five aspects: (1) economic development and allocation of industry are the fundamental reason for the development and evolution of Chinese ports; (2) spatial interaction between political central district and economic central district leads to the development of grain transportation by river and canal systems, which promotes the ancient ports especially the canal ports to develop and flourish; (3) international trade is always the main impelling factors of seaports development and evolution in China since the Qin and Han dynasties; (4) since the Sino-British Opium War, foreign aggression from the Western countries and the control of port governance power lead to the abnormal development of Chinese port system; and (5) development and competition from other modern transport mode such as railway and express way speed up the bloom of seaports, but the decadence of inland river ports, especially the canal ports. In the final, the author summarized the primary developing rules of ports distribution system in China, dealing with its spatial evolution route including seaports and river ports, the main ports, driving mechanism from the interior and exterior of China, opening characteristics, location of ports and developing stages.

Key words: China, port distribution systems, evolution course, developing mechanism