地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (7): 698-706.doi: 10.11821/xb200707003

• 地貌演化 • 上一篇    下一篇

放牧对古尔班通古特沙漠南部 沙垄地表性质的影响

王雪芹1, 张元明1, 蒋进1, 杨维康1, 陈明2, 张继凯2, 陈均杰1,3, 宋春武1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐830011;
    2. 新疆额尔齐斯河流域开发工程建设管理局, 乌鲁木齐830000;
    3. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-06 修回日期:2007-04-20 出版日期:2007-07-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:王雪芹(1964-), 女, 新疆昌吉人, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事风沙地貌、荒漠化及其防治研究。 E-mail: xqwang@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX3-SW-343); 新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金项目(200421128); 中科院 新疆生地所绿洲学者培养计划

Influence of Gr azing on the Char acter istics of Longitudinal Dune Sur face in the Southern Par t of Gurbantunggut Deser t

WANG Xueqin1, ZHANG Yuanming1, JIANG Jin1, YANG Weikang1, CHEN Ming2, ZHANG Jikai2, CHEN Junjie1,3, SONG Chunwu1,3   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Engineering Construction Management Bureau for Ertix River Basin Development in Xinjiang, Urumqi 830000, China;
    3. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2007-03-06 Revised:2007-04-20 Online:2007-07-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Program of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-343; Natural Science Foundation in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, No.200421128; The Project of Oasis Person with Ability in Xinjiang

摘要:

分别于2002 年和2005 年对古尔班通古特沙漠南部的同一条半固定沙垄, 进行了放牧前后的地表覆盖(包括植物和生物结皮)、沙面活动强度和土壤理化性质的系统监测和研究。 主要结论如下: 2002 年, 自然沙垄80%以上的地表被植物和生物结皮所覆盖, 除沙垄顶部外, 其他部位基本处于稳定状态。2005 年受放牧干扰的影响, 生物结皮破损率达到80%以上, 同期植物覆盖不及2002 年的1/5, 特别是短命植物变化最明显。2005 年输沙势只有2002 年的1/3, 但沙面活动强度是2002 年的2.6 倍, 活动区域也从垄顶部扩展至整个沙垄表面。 放牧后地表组成物中的中沙含量增加了13.9%, 而细沙和极细沙含量分别减少了7.4%和 8.0%, 沙垄各部位有机质含量在放牧后一个风季即下降了近1/2。可见, 放牧造成地表保护条件的多重损害, 使沙漠地表稳定性趋于丧失。其细粒物质及有机质的大量流失, 也将对我国温带荒漠生态系统的可持续发展产生重要影响。

关键词: 放牧, 半固定沙垄, 地表性质, 古尔班通古特沙漠

Abstract:

The Gurbantunggnt Desert is the largest fixed and semi-fixed desert in China, where the main dune type is longitudinal dune. The distribution of biological crusts and plants, sand surface stability and physicochemical characteristics of soil on the dune surface in the southern part of Gurbantunggut Desert were monitored and studied in 2002 (no grazing) and 2005 (following grazing). The results showed that over 80% of the total area of the dune surface was covered by well-developed biological crusts and plants in 2002, when the interdune and middle to lower part of the slopes were stabilized and only the crest had 10-40 m wide mobile belt. Affected by heavy grazing in 2005, over 80% of the total cover of the biological crusts was destructed and the plants coverage only reached 1/5 of that in 2002, especially, the ephemeral plants cover had a great change. The value of sand transport potential in 2005 only reached 1/3 of that in 2002, but the total surface activity in 2005 was 1.6 times stronger than that in 2002. Meanwhile mobile area began to expand from dune top to the whole dune surface following grazing. Compared with 2002, the medium sands content of the dune surface soil increased 13.9%, while that of fine and extra-fine sands decreased 7.4% and 8.0% in 2005. The soil organic matter in 2005 was only about 1/2 of that in 2002. It is obvious that grazing made excessive damage to some protective conditions in Gurbantunggnt Desert, such as the biological crusts and the ephemeral plants. Intensive activity of dune surface occurred and led to great losses of fine sands and organic matter, which will influence continuance development of the desert ecosystem.

Key words: grazing, semi-fixed longitudinal dune, dune surface characteristics, Gurbantunggut Desert