地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (7): 691-697.doi: 10.11821/xb200707002

• 地貌演化 • 上一篇    下一篇

广东大峡谷河床壶穴形态的形成与发育

王为1, 黄山1, 梁明珠2   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地貌与第四纪环境研究所, 广州510631;
    2. 暨南大学旅游研究所, 广州510631
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-23 修回日期:2007-05-10 出版日期:2007-07-25 发布日期:2007-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 黄山(1961-),男,硕士,讲师,主要研究方向:地貌与沉积。E-mail: shanhuang@scnu.edu.cn.
  • 作者简介:王为(1956-), 男,博士, 教授。主要研究方向: 地貌与第四纪; 海岸环境与管理。 E-mail: wangw@scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    广东省自然科学基金项目(031529); 华南师范大学科技冲顶计划项目(844032) 资助

Formation and Development of the Potholes Formed in a Gorge River in Guangdong

WANG Wei1, HUANG Shan1, LIANG Mingzhu2   

  1. 1. Geomorphology and Quaternary Environment Institute, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China;
    2. Tourism Institute of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
  • Received:2007-03-23 Revised:2007-05-10 Online:2007-07-25 Published:2007-07-25
  • Supported by:

    Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong, No.031529; Fund from South China Normal University, No.844032

摘要:

对广东中新世夷平面上大布河强烈下切的广东大峡谷源头河段的227 处壶穴形态特征进行详细测量并做统计分析, 结合野外观测结果从统计学的角度定量地描述壶穴的形成和发育过程。研究得出以下结论: 壶穴的形成与发育只与河床局部的地质、地貌、流水特征有关, 其形成始于河床床面薄弱处和三角(撞击) 坑; 壶穴形态受构造节理控制; 壶穴发育过程中, 深度与口径间有很强的(对数) 正相关关系; 壶穴发育过程中, 其形态和流水作用的形式不是固定的; 在下切强烈的河段, 作为河床下切的侵蚀形式之一, 壶穴形成既不需要很长时间, 也不能充分发育, 而且难以长期保留。以统计方法定量地研究河流壶穴有助于解决广东第四纪环境的有关争论。

关键词: 广东大峡谷, 河床壶穴, 形态特征, 统计学

Abstract:

Pothole geometries were measured in a reach of Dabu river bed at the head of a gorge that more than 200 m deeply incised into a 650-750-m high planation surface formed in the middle Miocene in northern Guangdong, China. Geometric and derivative data of the potholes obtained from the field study were interpreted using standard statistical methodologies. The statistical analysis combining with related field observations revealed the origins of river potholes and the processes of pothole formation and development. The study shown that the formation and development of a river pothole were only related to the localized conditions, such as geology, geomorphology and water fluid styles at a spot where the pothole occurred; the weaknesses, which were usually intersected fractures, typically interconnected vertical joints, or triangular pits generated by hitting of rock fragments during floods, initiated pothole development on a river bed at this site; the geometrical dimensions of the potholes were controlled by the features of the tectonic joints developed in river bed rock; the radius and the depth of potholes were strongly (log) positive correlated; the shape of a pothole and the style of stream flows forming the pothole were not always the same in the processes of pothole growth; as an important role for channel incision, a pothole could create quickly in a gorge river undergoing powerful vertical erosion, but did not have enough time to fully develop and could not be maintained for a long time as well.

Key words: Guangdong gorge, river pothole, morphological feature