地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (6): 563-570.doi: 10.11821/xb200706001

• 区域发展 •    下一篇

中国东部沿海地区乡村转型发展与新农村建设

刘彦随   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2007-01-15 修回日期:2007-03-20 出版日期:2007-06-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:刘彦随(1965-), 男, 陕西绥德人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员。主要从事土地利用、区域农业与 农村发展研究。在国内外学术刊物发表专业论文120 余篇,出版著作8 部。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635029); 国家自然科学基金项目(40171007)

Rur al Tr ansformation Development and New Countryside Construction in Eastern Coastal Ar ea of China

LIU Yansui   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2007-01-15 Revised:2007-03-20 Online:2007-06-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40635029; No.40171007

摘要:

1978 年改革开放以来, 中国东部沿海地区工业化、城市化的快速发展, 深刻地改变着广大农村地区, 促使农村产业结构、就业结构与农业生产方式等发生巨大变化, 乡村发展步入转型升级的新阶段。1978-2005 年, 沿海地区第一产业比重由23.3%降为7.9%, 第三产业比重由19.8%升为40.5%, 农业劳动力比重则由90.8%降为47.9%。模拟分析表明, 沿海地区 农业产值与农业就业份额仍将持续下降, 2010 年、2020 年农业产值比重将降为8.0%和 6.0%, 农业劳动力比重将降为44.5%和32.2%。1990-2005 年, 沿海地区劳耕弹性系数为1.84, 反映了农业劳动力的转移远快于耕地面积的减少, 农业劳动力效益在稳步提高。同期, 乡村人口由3.06 亿人降为2.19 亿人, 而农村人均居住用地规模却在增大, 未能实现农村人口 转移与农村居民点的减少相挂钩。沿海地区新农村建设须遵循乡村转型发展规律, 重在科学规划、分区推进, 通过优化城乡用地、发展现代农业和农村特色经济, 提升农村生产力, 促进沿海城乡互动与协调发展。

关键词: 乡村转型发展, 农业结构, 新农村建设, 中国东部沿海地区

Abstract:

With the implementation of reform and opening up policies, rapid industrialization and urbanization in the eastern coastal area of China has not only promoted the development of regional economy, enhanced the international competitiveness, but also influenced the vast rural area deeply, bringing great changes to the rural industrial structure, employment structure and agricultural production pattern, and the development of the coastal rural area has come into a new period of transformation and upgrade. The proportion of the primary industry decreased from 23.3% to 7.9% and that of the tertiary industry increased from 19.8% to 40.5%, while the proportion of agricultural labor force decreased from 90.8% to 47.9% during 1978-2005. Analysis shows that proportions of both production value of coastal agriculture in GDP and agricultural labor force in rural labors will continue to decrease to 8.0% and 44.5% by 2010 and to 6.0% and 32.2% by 2020. From 1990 to 2005, the average elasticity coefficient of cultivated land and labor force in the eastern coastal area came to 1.84, which means that the transfer of agricultural labor force is faster than the decrease of cultivated land and the labor productivity is increasing steadily. At the corresponding period, rural population decreased from 306 million to 219 million while rural construction land use per capita increased, indicating that the transfer of rural population failed to be linked to the decrease of rural residential land. The new countryside construction in the eastern coastal area must obey the rules of rural transformation and development, lay stress on scientific plan and regionalization, promote rural productivity and foster interactive and harmonious development between city and countryside by optimizing urban and rural land use and developing modern agriculture and rural characteristic economy.

Key words: rural transformation development, agricultural structure, new countryside construction, eastern coastal area of China