地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (5): 451-461.doi: 10.11821/xb200705001

• 干旱区生态 •    下一篇

基于生态水文过程的塔里木河下游 植被生态需水量研究

叶朝霞1,2,3, 陈亚宁1,2, 李卫红1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院绿洲生态与荒漠环境重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐830011;
    2. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐830011;
    3. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2006-12-23 修回日期:2007-03-20 出版日期:2007-05-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 陈亚宁 (1958-), 男, 博士, 博导, 研究员, 从事干旱区地表过程与生态系统演变、资源开发与环境保护研究。E-mail: chenyn@ms.xjb.ac.cn E-mail:chenyn@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:叶朝霞, 女, (1978-), 浙江人, 在读博士, 研究方向为干旱区环境演变与生态水文过程。 E-mail: littleleaf_rainbow@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新项目 (KZCX2-YW-127); 国家自然科学基金 (90502004; 40671014); 国家支撑项目 (2006BAC01A03); 国家"973"重点基础研究发展规划项目 (2004CB720200)

Ecological Water Demand of Vegetation Based on Eco-hydrological Processes in the Lower Reaches of Tarim River

YE Zhaoxia1,2,3, CHEN Yaning1,2, LI Weihong1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology and Desert Environment, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China; (
    2. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    3. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2006-12-23 Revised:2007-03-20 Online:2007-05-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Program of CAS, No.KZCX2-YW-127; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.90502004; No.40671014; National Science and Technology Support Plan, No.2006BAC01A03; National Basic Research Program of China, No.2004CB720200

摘要:

根据2005年塔里木河下游8个断面25眼地下水位观测井和25个植物样地野外采集的数据,运用DPS统计软件计算植被物种多样性指数,进而对地下水、土壤水与植被的关系进行了分析,结果表明地下水位、土壤含水量与植被多样性之间都有极强的相关性,在此基础上确定出塔里木河下游潜水蒸发的极限埋深是5 m。并采用阿维里扬诺夫公式和群克水均衡场公式对塔里木河下游天然植被的月潜水蒸发量进行计算,将两者计算结果加以算术平均得到塔里木河下游不同埋深对应的潜水蒸发量;采用两种方法对植被面积进行分类,在此分类基础上计算生态需水量,将两个结果再次平均,得到天然植被全年最低需水量约为3.2×108 m3。通过对月生态需水量的分析发现4月到9月的生态需水量占全年的81%,尤其是5、6、7三个月占全年总需水量的47%,是生态需水的主要时期。

关键词: 生态需水, 植被, 生态水文过程, 塔里木河

Abstract:

This paper appraised the relationships between soil moisture, groundwater depth and plant species diversity in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, western China, by analyzing the field data from 25 monitoring wells across eight study sites and 25 vegetation survey plots in 2005. The results showed that groundwater depth, soil moisture and plant species diversity had close relativity. It was proved that the critical phreatic water depth was 5 m in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Averaging the two results of the phreatic evaporations calculated by Аверъянов formula and Qunke formula, the mean phreatic evaporations of different groundwater levels in each month were acquired. Based on the calculation of two methods of vegetation acreage classification, the total ecological water demand (EWD) of natural vegetation was 3.2×108 m3 in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Analyzing the monthly EWD, it was found that the EWD in the growth season (from April to September) was 81% of the year's total, with May, June and July accounting for 47% of the year's total, which would supply a gist for choosing the best time to deliver water. This research aimed to realize water resources sustainable development and provide scientific basis for water resource management and sound collocation of the Tarim River Basin.

Key words: ecological water demand, vegetation, eco-hydrological processes, Tarim River